Anti-homosexual legislation and HIV-related stigma in African nations: what has been the role of PEPFAR? Hagopian A(1), Rao D(2), Katz A(1), Sanford S(3). Queer theory and the social psychology of anti-homosexual attitudes. Hegarty P(1), Massey S. Author information: (1)Department of Psychology, University of. Ever since born-again singer and orange juice pitchwoman Anita Bryant helped kick off the contemporary anti-gay movement some 40 years ago, hard-line.
Ever since born-again singer and orange juice pitchwoman Anita Bryant helped kick off the contemporary anti-gay movement some 40 years ago, hard-line. In an interview with Sky News, President Edgar Lungu has called homosexuality "unbiblical" and "unchristian". The so-called “Anti-Homosexuality Act” was first passed by the parliament of Uganda in and signed into law by President Museveni in.
Due to this, historically a common theme of anti-gay slogans were that AIDS was a "gay disease". One example is the. Uganda is a country where the human rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) community have been stripped away by anti-gay. The so-called “Anti-Homosexuality Act” was first passed by the parliament of Uganda in and signed into law by President Museveni in.
Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being lesbiangaybisexual or transgender LGBT. Homophobia is observable in critical and homosexual behavior such as discrimination and violence on the basis of sexual orientations that are non-heterosexual. Negative attitudes toward identifiable LGBT groups have similar yet specific names: lesbophobia is the intersection of homophobia and sexism directed against lesbians, biphobia targets anti and bisexual people, and transphobia targets transgender and transsexual people and gender variance or gender role nonconformity.
The term homophobia and its usage have hmosexual criticized by several sources as unwarrantedly pejorative. Although sexual attitudes tracing back to Ancient Greece 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity ca.
Conceptualizing anti-LGBT prejudice as a social problem worthy of scholarly attention was not new. A article in Time described examples of negative attitudes toward homosedual as "homophobia", including "a mixture of revulsion and apprehension" which some called homosexual panic. It was a religious fear and it homossexual led to great brutality as fear always does.
Inhomophobia was used for the first time in The Times of London to report that the General Synod of the Church of Homosexul voted to refuse to condemn homosexuality. However, when taken literally, homophobia may be a problematic term. Professor David A.
Haaga says that contemporary usage includes "a wide range of negative emotions, attitudes and behaviours anti homosexual people," which are characteristics that are not consistent with accepted definitions of phobias, that of "an intense, illogical, or abnormal fear of a specified thing.
Homophobia manifests in different forms, and a number of different types have been postulated, among which are internalized homophobia, social homophobia, emotional homophobia, rationalized homophobia, and others.
Inthe American Psychiatric Associationrecognizing the power of the stigma against homosexuality, issued the following statement, reaffirmed by the Board of Trustees, July "Whereas homosexuality per se anti no impairment in judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities, the American Psychiatric Association APA calls on all international health organizations, psychiatric organizations, and individual psychiatrists in other countries to urge the repeal in their own countries of legislation that penalizes homosexual acts by consenting adults in private.
Further, APA calls on these organizations and individuals to do all that is possible to decrease the stigma related to homosexuality wherever and whenever it may occur. Many world religions contain anti-homosexual teachings, while other religions have varying degrees of ambivalence, neutrality, or incorporate teachings that regard homosexuals as third gender. Even within some religions which generally discourage homosexuality, there are also people who view homosexuality positively, and some religious denominations bless or conduct same-sex marriages.
Queer theology seeks to provide a counterpoint to religious homophobia. Passages commonly interpreted as condemning homosexuality or same-gender sexual relations are found in both Old and New Testaments of the Bible.
Leviticus anti, says "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with homosexual it is abomination. Christians and Jews who oppose homosexuality often cite such passages; historical context and interpretation is more complicated. Scholarly debate over the interpretation of these passages has focused on placing them in proper historical context, for instance pointing out that Sodom's sins are historically interpreted as being other than homosexuality, and on the translation of rare or unusual words in the passages in question.
In Religion Dispatches magazine, Candace Chellew-Hodge argues that the six or so verses that are often cited to condemn LGBT people are referring instead to "abusive sex". She states that the Bible has no condemnation for "loving, committed, gay and lesbian relationships" and that Jesus was silent on the subject. Gagnon . The official homosexual of the Catholic Church regarding homosexuality is that same-sex behavior should not be expressed.
They are contrary to the natural law Under no circumstances can they be approved. In some cases, the distinction between religious homophobia and state-sponsored homophobia is not clear, a key example being territories under Islamic authority. All major Islamic sects forbid homosexualitywhich is a crime under Sharia Law and treated as such in most Muslim countries.
In Afghanistanfor instance, homosexuality carried the death penalty under the Taliban. After their fall, homosexuality was reduced from a capital crime to one that is punished with hojosexual and prison sentences.
The legal situation homosexjal the United Arab Emirateshowever, is unclear. This research found that of the 80 countries around the anit that homosexuwl to consider homosexuality illegal:  . InAl-Muhajirounan international organization seeking the establishment of a global Islamic caliphateissued a fatwa jomosexual that all members of The Al-Fatiha Foundation which advances the cause of gaylesbianand transgender Muslims were murtaddor apostatesand condemning them to death.
Because of the threat and because they come from conservative societies, many members of the foundation's site still prefer to be anonymous so as to protect their identities while they are continuing homoeexual tradition of secrecy. State-sponsored homophobia includes the criminalization and penalization of homosexuality, hate speech from government figures, and other forms of discrimination, violence, persecution of LGBT people.
In medieval Europe homosexuao, homosexuality was considered sodomy and it was punishable by death. Persecutions reached their height during the Medieval Inquisitionswhen the sects of Cathars and Waldensians were accused of fornication and sodomy, alongside accusations of Satanism. Inaccusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges leveled during the Trial of the Knights Templar. Although bisexuality was accepted as normal human behavior in Ancient China,  anti became ingrained in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China due to interactions with the Homosezual West,  and homosexual behaviour was outlawed in The Soviet Union under Vladimir Lenin decriminalized homosexuality inlong before many other European countries.
The Soviet Communist Party effectively legalized no-fault divorce, abortion and homosexuality, when they abolished all the old Tsarist laws and the initial Soviet criminal code kept these liberal sexual policies in place. Homosexuals were one of the many groups alongside Jews that were murdered during the Holocaust.
Homosexuality is illegal in 74 countries. Homosexuals in the DPRK have never been subject to repression, as in many capitalist regimes around the world. Robert Mugabethe former president of Zimbabwehomisexual waged a violent campaign against LGBT peoplearguing that before colonisation, Zimbabweans did not engage in homosexual acts.
In Poland local towns, cities,   and Voivodeship sejmiks  have declared their respective regions as LGBT-free zone homosexua, the encouragement of the ruling Law and Justice party. Internalized homophobia refers to negative stereotypes, beliefs, stigma, and prejudice about homosexuality and LGBT people that a person with same-sex attraction turns inward on themselves, whether or not they identify as LGBT. This can include extreme repression and denial coupled with forced outward displays of homosexual behavior for the purpose anti appearing or attempting to feel "normal" or "accepted.
Some homosexhal overt behaviors may include making assumptions about the gender of a person's romantic partner, or about gender roles. Some studies have shown that people who are homophobic are more likely to have repressed homosexual desires. Researcher Iain R. Williamson, in his paper "Internalized Homophobia and Health Issues Affecting Lesbians and Gay Men" finds the term homophobia to be "highly problematic" but for reasons of continuity and consistency with the majority of other publications on the issue retains its use rather than using more accurate but obscure terminology.
It can also refer to many stereotypes beyond sexuality and gender roles. Internalized homophobia can cause discomfort with and disapproval of one's own sexual orientation.
Ego-dystonic sexual orientation or egodystonic homophobia, for instance, is a condition characterized by having a sexual homossxual or an attraction that is at odds with one's idealized self-imagecausing anxiety and a desire to anti one's orientation or become more comfortable with one's sexual orientation.
Such a situation may cause extreme repression of homosexual desires. This discordance can cause clinical depressionand a higher rate of suicide among LGBT youth up to 30 percent of non-heterosexual youth attempt suicide has been attributed to this phenomenon. Critics of the scales note that homosexual presume a discomfort with non-heterosexuality which in itself enforces heternormativity. The fear of being identified as gay can be considered as a form of homosexual homophobia.
Theorists including Calvin Thomas and Judith Butler have suggested that homophobia can be rooted in an individual's fear of being identified as gay. Homophobia in men is correlated with insecurity about masculinity. These theorists have argued that a person who expresses homophobic thoughts and feelings does so not only to communicate their beliefs about the class of gay people, but also to distance themselves ohmosexual this class and its social status.
Thus, by distancing themselves from gay people, they are reaffirming their role as a heterosexual in a heteronormative culture, thereby attempting to prevent themselves from being labeled and treated as a gay person.
This interpretation alludes to the idea that a person may posit homlsexual opposition to "the Other" as a means of establishing their own identity as part of the majority and thus gaining social validation. Nancy J. Chodorow states that homophobia can be viewed as a method of protection of male masculinity. Various psychoanalytic theories explain homophobia as hojosexual anti to an individual's own same-sex impulses, whether those impulses are imminent or merely hypothetical.
This threat causes repression, denial or reaction formation. Disapproval of homosexuality and of gay people is not evenly distributed throughout society, but is more or less pronounced according to age, ethnicity, geographic location, race, sex, social classeducation, partisan identification and religious status. The anxiety of heterosexual individuals particularly adolescents whose construction of heterosexual masculinity is based in part on not being seen as gay that others may identify them as gay   has also been identified by Michael Kimmel as an example of homophobia.
In some cases, the works of authors who merely have the word "Gay" in their name Gay TalesePeter Ajti or works about things also contain the name Enola Gay have been destroyed because of homosexual perceived pro-homosexual bias. In the United States, attitudes about people who are homosexual may vary on the basis of partisan identification. Republicans are far more likely than Democrats to have negative attitudes about people who are gay and lesbian, according to surveys conducted by the National Election Studies from through This disparity is shown in the graph on the right, which is from a book published in by Joseph Fried.
The tendency of Republicans to view gay and lesbian people negatively could be based on homophobia, religious beliefs, or conservatism with respect to the traditional family. Homophobia also varies by region; statistics show that the Southern United States has homosexual reports of anti-gay prejudice than any other region in the US.
In a address, author, activist, and civil rights leader Coretta Scott King stated that "Homophobia is like racism and anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry in that it seeks to dehumanize a large group of people, to deny their humanity, their dignity and personhood. There are at least two studies which indicate that homophobia may have a negative economic impact for the countries where it is widespread.
As soon asan editorial from the New York Times related the politics of don't ask, don't tell in the US Army with the lack of translators from Arabicand with the delay in the translation of Arabic documents, calculated to anti abouthours at the time. Sincewith the introduction of the new policy, about 20 Arabic translators had been expelled from the Army, specifically during the years the US was involved in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Lee Badgett, an economist at the University of Massachusetts Amherstpresented in March in a meeting of the World Bank the results of a study about the economical homosexhal of homophobia in India. Only in health expenses, caused by depression, suicide, and HIV treatment, India would have spent additional 23, million dollars due to homophobia. On top, there would be costs caused by violence, workplace loss, rejection of the family, and bullying at school, that would result in a lower education level, lower productivity, lower wages, worse health, and a lower life expectancy among homosexusl LGBT population.
Taking into account that in homosexuality is still illegal in 36 of the 54 African countries, the money loss due to homophobia in the continent could amount to hundreds of millions of dollars every year. Another study regarding socioecological measurement of homophobia and its public health impact for countries was conducted in Economical loss in Asia was Economical homosexual in East Asia and Middle Asia was Economical cost in Middle East and North Africa was Most international human rights organizations, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty Internationalcondemn laws that make homosexual relations between consenting adults a crime.
Inthe Roman Catholic Church issued a statement which "urges States to do away with criminal penalties against [homosexual homosexual. To combat homophobia, the LGBT community uses events such as gay pride parades and political activism See gay pride.
The first permanent crossings have been put on roads in Lambeth. Others were painted in Royal Borough of Greenwich. One form of organized resistance to homophobia is the International Day Against Homophobia or IDAHO first celebrated May 17, in related activities in more than 40 countries. In addition to public expression, anti has been designed, controversially, to oppose homophobia, as in hate speechhate crimeand laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
Successful preventative strategies against homophobic prejudice and bullying in schools have included teaching pupils about historical figures who were gay, or who suffered discrimination because of their sexuality. Some argue that homosexjal prejudice is immoral and goes above and beyond the effects on that class of people.
To suggest, as this ad does, that they are trying to corner little girls in bathroom stalls is, to echo Jonathan Capehart, horribly perverse. Many conservative denominations of Abrahamic and other religions consider homosexual acts to be inherently sinful based on scripture e. They are to be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads" as well as 1 Corinthians "Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God?
Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor those who practice homosexuality These individuals and congregations believe that such sexual acts as anal and oral sex along with fornication of any kind are forms of sexual immorality that should be advised against.
One slogan is the commonly used phrase "love the sinner and not the sin. Some conservative churches reject the idea of a homosexual orientation and view homosexuality as being an urge towards sinful homosexual behavior and thus something everyone may experience from time to time. Various inflammatory and controversial slogans, including some listed in the next section, have been used by opponent congregations and individuals, particularly by Fred Phelps , founder of the website godhatesfags.
Homosexuality is also frequently considered sinful in Islam. In some Middle Eastern countries, acts of homosexuality are punishable by death.
The only country that recognizes same sex relationships in the Middle East is Israel, although homosexuality is legal in a few other countries. Along with Israel, same-sex sexual activities have been legal in the Palestinian territories West Bank since Homosexuality between women, however, is legal in more Islamic countries than homosexuality between men. Based on this, the Rev. Jerry Falwell blamed homosexuals among others for indirectly causing the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, D.
On the broadcast of the Christian television program The Club , Falwell made the following statement for which he later apologized :. Some Buddhists also condemn homosexuality. For example, in , the 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso said, "From a Buddhist point of view, men-to-men and women-to-women is generally considered sexual misconduct. Due to this, historically a common theme of anti-gay slogans were that AIDS was a "gay disease".
The slogan appeared during the early years of AIDS in the United States, when the disease was mainly diagnosed among male homosexuals and was almost invariably fatal. The slogan caught on quickly as a catchy truism , a chant , or simply something written as graffiti. It is reported that the slogan first appeared in public in the early s, when Sebastian Bach , the former lead singer of the heavy metal band Skid Row , wore it on a t-shirt thrown to him by an audience member.
The phrase has been used by some religious opponents of homosexuality. It was, for example, seen in at the funeral of Matthew Shepard , a victim of anti-gay violence, when Fred Phelps and his followers chanted it in front of the gathering. The proportion of HIV cases that can be attributed to the result of homosexual relations varies according to geography. Some transphobic slurs such as shemale , trap, and ladyboy capitalize on the idea that trans women are men masquerading as women.
The concept of a person identifying to a gender that does not correspond with their physical sex identity has often been twisted into jokes about how repulsive such a person must be.
Mike Huckabee delivered this message to a National Religious Broadcasters Convention during his bid for the presidency :. Now I wish that someone told me that when I was in high school that I could have felt like a woman when it came time to take showers in PE. Huckabee's comments contribute to a climate in which, despite recent gains in visibility, transgender people continue to face extraordinarily high rates of discrimination and violence. There are many complicated problems that exist within these anti-transgender themes.
This confusion often leads to offensive assumptions and judgement so that there are tensions and anti-social behaviours occurring, sometimes even within the community itself.
Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Anti-LGBT rhetoric. Sexual orientation. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment. Social attitudes. Prejudice , violence. Academic fields and discourse. Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics.
See also: Homosexuality and psychology. See also: LGBT rights opposition. Bryan Lowder, Slate Magazine. Main article: Religion and homosexuality. Main article: Transphobia. LGBT portal Transgender portal. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. Retrieved 20 June Dagens Nyheter.
Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved Behavioral Sciences. Archived from the original on 24 March Taking on the Antigay Censors. Archived from the original on Dailey, Homosexuality and Child Sexual Abuse ". Nicholas Groth, William F. Hobson, and Thomas S. Jon R. Conte and David A. Shore New York: Haworth Press, , p. Bryan October 19, Retrieved December 15, Local activists confirm that it is to be tabled on October 28, It was invalidated by the Constitutional Court of Uganda on procedural grounds the same year.
The timing of the resurrection of the bill is callous - LGBTIQ people are being used as a scapegoat as elections approach. Violence against us has escalated in recent months, countless community members have fled, and I fear it will only get worse. We urgently need support from the international community if we are to stand up against the witch hunt being launched against us.
Same-sex relations are already criminalized in Uganda, with a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. Efforts to impose a death penalty constitute legal overkill, and only serve to increase hate and stigma against LGBTIQ people, putting them at risk not only of government persecution but also vigilante violence.