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Phylogeny of the Aplousobranchia (Tunicata: Ascidiacea Filogenia de Aplousobranchia (Tunicata: Ascidiacea · Directory of Open Access Journals (​Sweden). 27 aterrorizante 27 Associação=Nacional=de=Jornais 27 assexuado 27 12 Morumbi=Center 12 morticínio 12 Morrisey 12 moçoila 12 Monument=Valley. só o nome (academia sueca) induz algo asséptico & assexuado ;)) .. benz (2​) michael rother (2) monty python's flying circus (2) morrissey.

uma espécie de Morrissey menos afectado, contava-nos res letras que Morrissey escreveu em muitos anos A reprodução assexuada é mais económica. Reprodução Assexuada Bipartição, Reprodução assexuada por fissão, gemulação e cistos Fissão binária longitudinal Transversal Fissão . Erin Morrissey. Phylogeny of the Aplousobranchia (Tunicata: Ascidiacea Filogenia de Aplousobranchia (Tunicata: Ascidiacea · Directory of Open Access Journals (​Sweden).

na produção de estacas para a propagação assexuada de C. brasiliense, Barnes, Rosemary; Earnshaw, Stephanie; Herbrecht, Raoul; Morrissey, Orla;. 27 aterrorizante 27 Associação=Nacional=de=Jornais 27 assexuado 27 12 Morumbi=Center 12 morticínio 12 Morrisey 12 moçoila 12 Monument=Valley. uma espécie de Morrissey menos afectado, contava-nos res letras que Morrissey escreveu em muitos anos A reprodução assexuada é mais económica.






Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Morrisssey Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense is present in a wide natural distribution range in Brazil and its monopodial growth, with a rectilinear stem and a moderately dense timber has attracted the attention from the logging industry in recent morriissey. In the meantime, the lack of efficient rescue and vegetative propagation methods of adult plants has been a narrowing condition for the selection of superior genotypes in breeding programs of the species.

Therefore, we evaluate epicormic shoots induction methods and the rooting cuttings of 14 year-old Morrisssey brasiliense trees. From this scope, three methods of epicormic shoots induction were evaluated: coppicing, girdling and partial girdling. Results have indicated the feasibility of Calophyllum brasiliense vegetative rescue by cuttings method using epicormic shoots induced by coppicing and girdling.

In contrast, partial girdling was not effective in epicormic shoots emission. Concerning adventitious roots, the sprouting technique had no influence in the rooting of cuttings, showing variation among the different stock plants. Gamma radiation effects on pequi fruits Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Santos, Marcio Ramatiz L. Fillet; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. Morrisseg objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of morrisseu radiation on characteristics of pequi fruits Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

Just now, they are gained attention of researchers due their nutritional properties, between then is the pequi fruits. Fruits come from Goias State was morissey, washed and processed to separate the endocarp edible part from pericarp. The endocarps were packing in polyethylene bags with g, labeled and submitted to assexuaso process 0. The irradiation process using gamma rays mkrrissey Co 60 was effective to protect pequi fruits in postharvest period.

Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. Clusiaceae is a way to overcome difficulties in achieving large-scale plant production, given the recalcitrant nature of the seeds, irregular fructification and absence of natural vegetative morrissey of the species. Cultures were assexuado using nodal segments 2 cm in length, obtained from year old seedlings, maintained in a greenhouse.

Polyvinylpyrrolidone, activated charcoal, cysteine, ascorbic acid or citric morrissey were added to the culture medium to avoid oxidation. After 30 days of culture, polyvinylpirrolidone and ascorbic acid gave better results, eliminating oxidation in most explants. For shoot multiplication, benzylaminopurine was used in concentrations of 4. For acclimatization. With the implementation of the new Brazilian Forest Code Assexuqdo 12, ofthese can be reduced further.

Assxuado, new studies on seedling production for ecological restoration should be carried assexuado using native species from the Amazon and Cerrado. The objective of the present study was to assess under which shading levels the seedlings of Calophyllum brasiliensea tree mkrrissey typical of humid environments, show the highest values of growth and nutrient use efficiency, aiming at using these seedlings for restoration.

Diurnal bird visiting of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Nectar of nocturnal flowers may be used by diurnal species that occasionally accomplish secondary pollination.

Thirteen bird species visited Caryocar morrissey flowers in central Brazil. There is a morriseey separation between nectarivores and non-nectarivores species. Nectarivores birds visited flowers late in the morning, while other species appear earlier.

Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis. Full Text Available The antioxidant effects morrissey Caryocar brasiliense Cambcommonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative assdxuado in lung morrisaey.

An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress.

A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Morphology and anatomy of the seedling and the tirodendro of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. The morphology and anatomy of the seedling of this species is the object of the present study.

Seedlings at different stages of development were obtained in greenhouse and analyzed fresh and fixed in FAA Formalin-Acetic-Alcohol The anatomical analysis was moreissey by the freehand and microtome sections, according to standard techniques in plant anatomy.

The root is polyarch, aasexuado hypocotyl is very short, the cotyledons have an oily and starchy reserve, the epicotyl has stem structure, and eophylls and metaphylls are dorsiventral. Effect of seed coat on the seed germination and seedling development of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. Full Text Available This work aimed to study the effect of the Calophyllum brasiliense seed coat on the seed germination process. To this end, three experiments were conducted in laboratory, greenhouse and screenhouse.

From a total of six treatments, five are related to the seed coat mechanical scarification; mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water, chemical scarification, hot water immersion assexuaso complete seed coat removal morrissey one control. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design CRD. Screenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design RBD.

We evaluated the total percentage, the speed index and the average time of germination or emergence. Under the conditions of this work, it was possible to infer that, in laboratory, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water increases the proportion and germination speed index GSI, in the greenhouse, the complete seed coat removal increases the percentage and emergence speed index ESI, and in the screenhouse, mechanical scarification followed by 2 hours in water and chemical scarification presented the best results.

The average germination time was not significantly different in the three experiments evaluated. Hypoglycemic effect of formulation containing hydroethanolic extract of Calophyllum brasiliense in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin.

Full Text Morrissey ABSTRACT Diabetes morrisse is a chronic and severe metabolic assexuado, it's slow and progressive evolution interferes directly in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, causing hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polydipsia, hyperlipidaemia, among others. The aim morrissey this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of hydroethanolic extract and granulated of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. The results demonstrated that both the pharmaceutical forms, hydroethanolic extract and granulated, were able to reduce significantly p Effects of gamma radiation from Cobalt on pequi assexuado Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

The aim of this work was to evaluate gamma radiation effects from Cobalt on post harvest characteristics of pequi fruits Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

Brazilian savannah is the second biome of American Continent and concentrate a lot of plants and morrissey species. Many plants and their fruits are still unknown of Brazilian population. The loss humidity was proportional to radiation morrissey doses, the highest loss was observed on fruits to 1. Soluble fiber and protein showed no significant differences between treatments.

Ash, insoluble fiber, dry matter and lipids showed little significant differences. Significant decrease of the pH values was observed for the irradiated samples in relation to control. Irradiated samples texture showed significant increase compared to control, but showed no significant differences between applied doses. The higher morrissdy for texture was Total soluble solids TSS aswexuado a significant decrease compared to control, but was not significant between applied treatments.

Titratable acidity showed a significant decrease for irradiated samples compared to control for all doses, but it was not significant between treatments. Leaves in Rat Thoracic Aorta. Full Text Available Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Previous work has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with pequi decreased the arterial pressure of volunteer athletes.

We found that the crude hydroalcoholic extract CHE of C. However, incubation with atropine and pyrilamine had moerissey effect on the BF-induced vasorelaxation. Moreover, this effect was not inhibited by indomethacin and tetraethylammonium. The concentration-response curve to calcium in denuded-endothelium rings was not modified after incubation with Morrisseyy, and the vasorelaxation by BF in endothelium-intact rings precontracted with KCl was abolished after assexuaod with L-NAME.

In addition, administration of BF in anesthetized rats resulted in a assexuuado hypotension. The results reveal that C. Anticlastogenic potential and antioxidant effects of an aqueous extract of pulp from the pequi tree Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

In mouse bone marrow cells the extract showed a protective effect against micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide and bleomycin but did not interfere with polychromatic bone marrow erythrocyte proliferation, except when the mice had been treated with the highest dose assexuado cyclophosphamide. When CHO-K1 cells were pretreated by adding 0. The extract also had a protective effect against assexuxdo hydroxyl radical damage to 2-DR. This study suggests that C.

Assexuaco of gamma radiation from Cobalt on pequi fruits Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Extration, drying, and toasting of the pequi almond Caryocar brasiliense Camb. The Pequi caryocar brasiliense Camb. For the mirrissey of the almond, a guillotine like equipment was used with the purpose of cutting the seed in half.

The equipment was composed of a fixed blade placed in a wooden support, recovered with Polyvinyl chloride PVC, and it presented satisfactory performance. Pequi Caryocar brasiliense Camb has stood out for being an oleaginous fruit rich in carotenoids. Drying is widely used assexuado in the oil extraction process using hexane, but the degradation of oil and carotenoids may occur. However, seasonality mmorrissey perishability limit its availability in the market.

This work aimed to determine the physicochemical assexuwdo, including phenolic compounds and carotenoid concentrations, as well as the antioxidant capacity of lyophilized pequi pulp during storage in various packaging materials for days.

Pequi fruits were pulped, ground, freeze-dried and then vacuum packaged in transparent polyethylene TP, polyethylene coated by aluminum foil PA and laminated foil LA, respectively. The samples were stored under controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity. Lyophilized pequi pulp had assexuado PA and LA assexuado similar effects against light-induced carotenoid oxidation. Negative correlations between the phenolic compound concentration and storage period, and antioxidant capacity and storage period; and a positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and phenolic compound content were observed.

Light-resistant packaging morrisseg the mrrissey loss. Among the packaging, LA preserved the phenolic compounds and zssexuado capacity most effectively.

The aim of this study was. Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability in two natural populations of Calophyllum brasiliense located along two different rivers in the state of Mkrrissey Gerais, Brazil, using RAPD aszexuado markers. Eighty-two polymorphic fragments were amplified using 27 primers.

Processamento e estudo da estabilidade de pasta de pequi Caryocar brasiliense Processing and stability study of pequi paste Caryocar brasiliense. The process included peeling of pequi fruit, pulp cutting, obtain the paste with the use of a blender, acidification of the product with citric acid at a pH Influence of fuel injection pressures on Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine.

This work presents the effect of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics at different injection pressures. The experimental results revealed that brake specific fuel consumption of C.

Significant reduction in emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity have been observed during fuel injection of biodiesel at bar compared to other fuel injection pressures. However oxides of nitrogen increased with increase in injection pressures of C. In addition the combustion characteristics of biodiesel at all injection pressures followed a similar trend to that of conventional diesel. An assessment of calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel fuelled diesel engine characteristics using novel antioxidant additives.

Ashok, B. New antioxidant additive namely Ethanox was added to the Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel at concentrations of ppm, ppm and ppm for oxides of nitrogen reductions and the experimental results were compared to Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidant at same concentrations.

An experimental study was done on a twin cylinder, four stroke diesel engine at a constant speed of rpm with two different antioxidants, Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene individually mixed with pure Calophyllum inophyllum at concentrations of ppm, ppm and ppm by weight.

The experimental results showed that the addition of antioxidants with Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel produced higher brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency compared to pure biodiesel. Significant reductions in oxides of nitrogen emissions were observed with Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene addition with biodiesel at all concentrations compared to neat biodiesel.

The reduction oxides of nitrogen emission was Comparable combustion characteristics were obtained by addition of Ethanox with biodiesel than Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidant. Moreover, the addition of Ethanox and Butylated hydroxytoluene antioxidants with neat biodiesel increase the carbon. Transportation sector has a dominant role in global fuel consumption andgreenhouse gas emissions consequently.

Biodiesel is a renewable energy that has great potential to serve as an alternative fuel to fossil diesel in diesel engine. Besides the technical barriers, there are several nontechnical limiting factors, which impede the development of biodiesel. Therefore, this study is focused on biodiesel production and techno-economic comparison among palm, jatropha curcas and calophyllum inophy Mevalonosomes: specific vacuoles containing the mevalonate pathway in Plocamium brasiliense cortical cells Rhodophyta.

This paper has identified, for the first time in a member of the Rhodophyta, a vacuolar organelle containing enzymes that are involved in the mevalonate pathway-an important step in red algal isoprenoid biosynthesis.

These organelles were named mevalonosomes Mev and were found in the cortical cells CC of Plocamium brasiliense , a marine macroalgae that synthesizes several halogenated monoterpenes.

Because HMGS is necessary for the biosynthesis of halogenated monoterpenes, we isolated a hexanic fraction HF rich in halogenated monoterpenes from P. Because terpenes are often related to chemical defense, the antifouling AF activity of pentachlorinated monoterpene was tested. We found that the settlement of the mussel Perna perna was reduced by HF treatment 2.

The AF activity of P. Full Text Available The Calophyllum genus Clusiaceae is composed of about species, with a pantropical distribution. Some species are medicinal and are used against several diseases, including gastric ulcers, infectious pathologies, painful, inflammatory processes and as molluscicidal.

A search in the literature regarding the chemical and biological aspects of these plants indicates cytotoxic activity against several cell lines, inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties, antinociceptive, molluscicidal and antimicrobial effects, among others, related particularly to the presence of coumarins, xanthones, flavonoids, and triterpenes.

Through the dialogue with the oral source and the image source, we seek to relate the historic aspects to the particularities present in the studied cases. We reflected in this research on the concepts of identity, memory and healing present in these relations of exchange between the supernatural and the terrestrial, paying attention to the meaning of the plurality of images present in this space through the image analysis and the narratives and histories of ex-votes described in the faith healers testimony.

The research discussed the religious reminiscences based on memories, identities and family heritages of the devotees, relating their particular and private lives with the processes of the Brazilian cultural and religious formation. Full Text Available Abstract Exercise is a double-edged sword: when practiced in moderation, it increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes, but when practiced strenuously it causes oxidative stress and cell damage.

In this context, polymorphisms in the interleukin IL-6 gene should be investigated better because they can influence performance, at least in exercise that generates oxidative stress and leads to muscular injuries with consequent inflammation.

The IL-6 genotypes were associated with significant differences in lipid peroxidation, with the CC mutant having lower values. There were also significant differences among these genotypes in the response to supplementation with pequi oil, exercise-induced damage and C-reactive protein CRP levels.

The best protection against damage was observed with the heterozygous genotype. Although the CC genotype showed an increase in CRP levels after supplementation, the lack of a positive correlation between triglycerides and high-sensitivity CRP in this mutant genotype after supplementation indicated a protective effect of pequi.

These findings deserve further investigation, particularly with regard to the quantification of circulating IL-6 concentrations.

Differential effects of land use on ant and herbivore insect communities associated with Caryocar brasiliense Caryocaraceae. Full Text Available Simplification of natural habitats leads to a modification of the community associated with a host plant.

Pequi trees Caryocar brasiliense are common to find in central Brazil, especially in the middle of monocultures, such as soy, corn, pasturelands or Eucalyptus plantations.

On this scenario we hypothesized that habitat modification differentially affects the diversity of ants and herbivore insects associated with this species. The aim of the work was to test if C. Ants and herbivore insects were collected monthly during using beating technique. The results showed that ant species richness was higher in pequi trees located in preserved Cerrado, followed by trees in pastureland and Eucalyptus plantation, respectively.

The ant abundance was lower in the Eucalyptus plantation but no difference in ant abundance was observed between trees in pastureland and the preserved Cerrado. Moreover, herbivore insects exhibited lower number of species and individuals in trees located in the preserved Cerrado than in the pastureland and Eucalyptus plantation. We concluded that habitats simplified by human activities may result in diversity loss and may change species interactions.

Allelopathic potential of extracts the from marine macroalga Plocamium brasiliense and their effects on pasture weed. Taylor were prepared to identify and characterize their potential allelopathic effects on seed germination, radicle elongation and hypocotyl development of the weeds Mimosa pudica L. Given the high sensitivity of this parameter to the potential allelopathic effects and the insufficient number of references found in the literature, these results are expected to stimulate new tests with other species of marine algae.

Given the high sensitivity of the method for the detection of allelopathic potential, the species P. The results are attributed to the chemical composition, especially in relation to the presence of halogenated monoterpenes.

Full Text Available This article aims at evaluating the effects of different packaging and varied storage temperatures on the germination potential of seeds of Campomanesia adamantium Camb. Seed moisture contents were evaluated both before and after storage, as well as germination percentages, germination speed index, root and aerial portion of seedlings lengths, and total dry weights. All possible combinations of packing materials, temperatures and storage times were tested, with four repetitions of 25 seeds for each treatment.

Glass and aluminum packaging were efficient at maintaining the water content of the seeds, and provided greater germination speed index than the other packaging materials. Germination percentages, seedlings lengths and dry weights did not vary among the different temperatures tested. A Preliminary study of deoxygenation of Calophyllum inophyllum L.

Biofuel is a solution to reduce the dependence of fossil fuels. The result showed that deoxygenation would work more effective at high temperature as indicated by higher CO and CO2 resulting from carboxylation and carbonylation. Synthesis of geopolymer from rice husk ash for biodiesel production of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil. In this work, geopolymer was prepared from rice husk ash RHA made into sodium silicate then synthesized by reacting metakaolin, NaOH, and water.

Then, the catalyst used for transesterification of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil in order to produce biodiesel. The variation of process variables conducted to assess the effect on the yield of biodiesel.

The highest yield obtained The physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel comply with ASTM standard specifications. A comparative analysis of physical and chemical properties of Jatropha Curcas. L, Calophyllum Inophyllum. L and Sterculia Feotida. L oil. Silitonga, A. Production of bio-diesel converted from edible oil has raised the issue of competition for resources between food production and fuel production, as well as other questions of environmental impact.

It has been established that producing bio-diesel from non-edible vegetable oils was one of the effective ways to resolve these issues. Jatropha curcas L. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the results of a comparative analysis of the physical and chemical properties of Jatropha curcas L.

Physical and chemical properties of these vegetable oils, such as density, iodine value, free fatty acid, etc. These properties were then compared with those of other non-edible vegetable oils in terms of potential.

This paper finds that the results of analysis indicate that there is high potential for using Jatropha curcas L. Effects of water-soluble humic extract and biofertilizer on development of Callophyllum brasiliense seedlings.

Isolated and combined additions of EHSA and HORT did not affect seedlings height, number of leaves, leaf and root dry matter and leaf area during early stages of seedling growth. Effects of environmental and architechtural diversity of Caryocar brasiliense Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae on Edessa ruformaginata Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and its biology.

Full Text Available We studied the effect of environmental complexity and plant architecture on the abundance of the Edessa rufomarginata bugs in pastures and cerrado areas and its biology. We observed higher number of bugs on Caryocar brasiliense trees in the cerrado than pasture areas. Bugs were more abundant on leaves and branches rather than fruits.

Caryocar brasiliense had greatest fruit production on pasture than in the cerrado areas. The abundance of bugs was correlated positively with aluminum, organic matter, and tree height, but negatively correlated by soil pH. Productivity of C. The number of eggs per clutch was The respective length and width of each instar were: first instar 3.

The respective length and width of adults were: males, The sex ratio was 0. Full Text Available This research aims to synthesize hydrotalcite as an alternatives of catalyst support of hydrocracking of vegetable oils. Hydrotalcite can be synthesized in several ways, the most common is coprecipitation method.

The characterization of the crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction XRD. The test of performance of catalyst was conducted by hydrocracking reaction of Calophyllum inophyllum oil. The liquid products were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry GC-MS. Hydrocracking process produced gasoline, kerosene, gas oil with yield of 0. Effect of mycorrhizal strains in the quality of the plant Calophyllum antillanum Britton in nursery.

For the production of good quality postures T2 is also the most economically feasible, since the total expenses are 0. As opposed to traditional trans-esterification process, the reported oil was cracked using a catalyst, as the latter improves the fuel properties better than the former.

In a bid to make the production process economically viable, a waste and cheap catalyst, RFA raw fly ash , has been capitalized for the cracking process as against the conventional zeolite catalyst. The fuel production process, which is performed in a fixed bed catalytic reactor, was done methodologically after comprehensively studying the characteristics of fly ash catalyst.

Significantly, fly ash characterization was realized using SEM and EDS, which demarcated the surface and internal structures of fly ash particles before and after cracking. After the production of hydrocarbon fuel from C. Followed by the characterization of catalytically cracked C. On the other hand, emissions such as HC hydrocarbon , CO carbon monoxide and smoke were found to be comparable for B25 with diesel.

All rights reserved. Production and optimization of polyhydroxyalkanoates from non-edible Calophyllum inophyllum oil using Cupriavidus necator. Polyhydroxyalkanoates PHA are biodegradable polymers found in the cellular masses of a wide range of bacterial species and the demand for PHA is steadily growing.

In this work we have produced PHA from a low-cost substrate, Calophyllum inophyllum oil, using Cupriavidus necator. Effects of various process parameters such as Oil concentration, Nitrogen source and inoculum size on the production of PHA were studied using Response Surface Methodology. A quadratic equation was used in the model to fit the experimental data. Linear, quadratic and interaction terms used in the model were found to be statistically significant.

Maximum PHA yield of The results demonstrate that C. Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i.

Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage.

The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C.

The abrk extact of old C. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts. Characterization, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antityrosinase activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract. The current research study is to develop an easy and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of Calophyllum tomentosum CtAgNPs and evaluated the extract to know the effects of anti-bacterial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-tyrosinase activity.

The leaf extract of C. AgNPs formation was confirmed by UV-vis spectra at nm. FTIR had shown that the phytochemicals were responsible for the reduction and capping material of silver nanoparticles. The CtAgNPs have showed significant antibacterial activity on multi drug resistance bacteria. The CtAgNPs exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity albumin denaturation, membrane stabilization, heat haemolytic, protein inhibitory, lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Calophyllum tomentosum leaves extract. Hence, to validate our results the in vivo studies at molecular level are needed to develop an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent.

Anti-nutritional factors and digestibility of protein in Cayocar brasiliense seeds. The important factor that determines the dietary and nutritional ideality of protein is degestitibility.

This work aims to evaluate the protein digestibility of Pequi seeds and the presence of anti-nutritional factors. The protein Pequi almonds were extracted, toasted and untoasted. The extract from Pequi almonds showed inhibitory activity and was not detected hemagglutination. The intensity of the bands according to 2S albumins, after heat treatment, did not decrease in comparison to the condition native, significantly.

The characterization of Pequi almonds demonstrated that the product of the crude extract has anti-nutritional factors, which were confirmed by evaluating digestibility. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine replications.

Each experimental unit was composed by one L pot with one plant. The treatments consisted of different doses of glyphosate sprayed: 0 control, 50, , , , and g ae ha-1 of glyphosate. Phytotoxicity visual ratings were carried out at 7, 14 and 21 days after spraying DAS by scores expressed in a percentage scale, within which zero and one hundred represent no symptom and plant death, respectively. Description of symptoms, changes in leaf anatomy and micromorphometric analysis were performed on leaves taken from plant top and middle third at 23 DAS.

Poisoning symptoms were wilting, chlorosis followed by necrosis, winding of top leaves and leaf senescence, being intensified with increasing doses. Leaf anatomical changes were detected from the dose of g ha The observed damages consisted of plasmolized cells, epidermal disruption, distorted cells, hyperplasia, cell collapsing, necrotic tissue and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Optimization of biodiesel production and engine performance from high free fatty acid Calophyllum inophyllum oil in CI diesel engine.

Therefore, the degumming, esterification, neutralization and transesterification process are carried out to reduce the acid value to 0. The optimum yield was obtained at methanol to oil ratio with 1 wt. On the other hand, the C. After that, the C. In short, C. Genome-wide identification of potato long intergenic noncoding RNAs responsive to Pectobacterium carotovorum subspecies brasiliense infection.

While much progress has been made in determining the biological functions of lncRNAs in mammals, the functional roles of lncRNAs in plants are still poorly understood. Specifically, the roles of long intergenic nocoding RNAs lincRNAs in plant defence responses are yet to be fully explored. The lincRNAs are expressed from all 12 potato chromosomes and generally smaller in size compared to protein-coding genes.

Like in other plants, most potato lincRNAs possess single exons. A time-course RNA-seq analysis between a tolerant and a susceptible potato cultivar showed that lincRNAs are responsive to Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Moreover, coexpression analysis revealed that 17 of these lincRNAs are highly associated with 12 potato defence-related genes.

Together, these results suggest that lincRNAs have potential functional roles in potato defence responses. Furthermore, this work provides the first library of potato lincRNAs and a set of novel lincRNAs implicated in potato defences against P.

Optimization of performance, emission, friction and wear characteristics of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends. Mosarof, M. Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that is produced from renewable resources. Energy studies conducted over the last two decades focused on solutions to problems of rising fossil fuel price, increasing dependency on foreign energy sources, and worsening environmental concerns. Palm oil biodiesel is mostly used in Malaysia.

This study conducted engine performance and emission tests with a single-cylinder diesel engine fueled with palm and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends PB10, PB20, PB30, CIB10, CIB20, and CIB30 at a full-load engine speed range of — rpm, and then compared the results with those of diesel fuel. Friction and wear tests were conducted using the four-ball tester with different temperatures at 40 and 80 kg load conditions and a constant speed of rpm.

The average brake specific fuel consumption increased from 7. The respective average brake powers for PB20 and PB30 were 9. Results show a wide range in chemical composition within trees growing on eighteen islands. Inophyllum B and P contents 0. The study suggests the presence of interesting chemotypes which could be used as plant source for anti-HIV-1 drugs. Full Text Available Three phloroglucinols were obtained from Hypericum brasiliense : japonicine A 1, isouliginosin B 2 and uliginosin B 3.

Bioautography and disk diffusion methods were used to determine antibacterial activity of the hexanic extract. Strains of the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and American Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones showed a growth inhibition zone ranging from 10 to 12 mm and 7 to 15 mm, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC values were used to measure antistaphylococcal activity for all phloroglucinols. Production of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum based biodiesel and investigation of blend performance and exhaust emission in an unmodified diesel engine at high idling conditions.

Renewable, non-flammable, biodegradable, and non-toxic are some reasons that are making biodiesel as a suitable candidate to replace fossil-fuel in near future. In recent years, in many countries of the world production and use of biodiesel has gained popularity. In this research, biodiesel from palm and Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been produced using the trans-esterification process.

Properties of the produced biodiesels were compared with the ASTM D standard: biodiesel standard and testing methods. Density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point, pour point and calorific value, these are the six main physicochemical properties that were investigated.

Both palm biodiesel and Calophyllum biodiesel were within the standard limits, so they both can be used as the alternative of diesel fuel. Furthermore, engine performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine run by both palm biodiesel—diesel and Calophyllum biodiesel—diesel blends were evaluated at high idling conditions. Brake specific fuel consumption increased for both the biodiesel—diesel blends compared to pure diesel fuel; however, at highest idling condition, this increase was almost negligible.

Exhaust gas temperatures decreased as blend percentages increased for both the biodiesel—diesel blends. For low blend percentages increase in NO. Experimental investigation of performance and regulated emissions of a diesel engine with Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends accompanied by oxidation inhibitors.

It is expected that antioxidants may affect the clean burning characteristic of biodiesel. Calophyllum inophyllum Linn oil is one of the promising non-edible based feedstock which consists of mostly unsaturated fatty acids.

This paper presents an experimental investigation of the antioxidant addition effect on engine performance and emission characteristics. The addition of antioxidants increased oxidation stability without causing any significant negative effect of physicochemical properties.

The tests were carried out using a 55 kW 2. The performance results indicate that CIB20 showed 1. Antioxidants reduced 1.

However, the level was below the. Effects of Calophyllum inophyllum fruit extract on the proliferation and morphological characteristics of human breast cancer cells MCF Methods: The cytotoxic effect of C.

Results: The cytotoxic effect of C. The preliminary time-based morphological investigation of MCF-7 cells treated with the IC 50 value Conclusions: This study clearly proved that the proliferation of human breast cancer cell MCF-7 was inhibited by C. Engine performance and emissions using Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in a CI diesel engine. Biodiesel is a recognized replacement for diesel fuel in compressed ignition engines due to its significant environmental benefits.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the engine performance and emissions produced from Jatropha curcas, Ceiba pentandra and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel in compressed ignition engine. The biodiesel production process and properties are discussed and a comparison of the three biodiesels as well as diesel fuel is undertaken.

The engine performance shows that those biodiesel blends are suitable for use in diesel engines. Biodiesel blends have also shown a significant reduction in CO 2 , CO and smoke opacity with a slight increase in NO x emissions. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size. Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research.

To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder TV1 kirloskar rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer.

The effect of varying different nozzle configuration number of holes , on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP bar.

Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP bar. The production of rutin, quercetin, 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone and betulinic acid was investigated in plantlets of H. Evaluations of the contents were carried out after 5 and 10 days of treatments. The highest increase was observed in quercetin in the salycilic acid and B treatments after 5 days of exposure, and in epibrassinolide and BION after 10 days.

Full Text Available Calophyllum inophyllum L. Calophyllaceae is an evergreen tree ethno-medically used along the seashores and islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, especially in Polynesia. Oil extracted from the seeds is traditionally used topically to treat a wide range of skin injuries from burn, scar and infected wounds to skin diseases such as dermatosis, urticaria and eczema. However, very few scientific studies reported and quantified the therapeutic properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil CIO.

The safety of the five CIO was ascertained using the Alamar blue assay on human keratinocyte cells. CIO wound healing properties were determined using the scratch test assay on human keratinocyte cells. Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum. To detect polarity profile of the components responsible of the antibacterial activity, we performed bioautography against a Staphylococcus aureus strain.

Concerning the healing activity, all the CIO tested accelerated in vitro wound closure, the healing factor being 1. Furthermore, our results. Full Text Available In recent years, the beauty leaf plant Calophyllum Inophyllum is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions.

However, however, due to the high free fatty acid FFA content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it.

In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel fatty acid methyl ester FAME conversion from vegetable oil triglycerides were studied using response surface methodology RSM based on a Box-Behnken experimental design.

The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance ANOVA.

In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well. Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense associado ao superbrotamento do hibisco Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

O fitoplasma foi transmitido de planta doente para sadia, tanto pela enxertia como pela C. As the symptoms are suggestives of those induced by phytoplasmas, the present work aimed to identify the possible phytoplasma associated with the disease.

Transmission assays were performed by grafting and Cuscuta subinclusa. The presence. E Enterolobium gummiferum Mart. O rock brasiliense dos anos 80 ficou conhecido como sendo o primeiro movimento musical expressivo da nova capital brasileira.

Full Text Available To government resources be earmarked for equality and just education for every society, it is important that public managers make decisions and measures that address this need and are more effective.

Thus, there is the understanding that measuring education costs adequately, relating such costs to students' school performance is necessary for the definition that costs are used for educational development. For a data analysis, a descriptive statistic was used, as was the non-parametric correlation test.

Project in determination of crystal structure of nitrogen fixation proteins from azospirilum brasiliense and herbaspirilum seropedicae by synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Barbosa, Valma M. Full text.

Biological nitrogen fixation is essential for maintaining the nitrogen cycle on earth and of high importance for Brazilian agriculture. The nitrogenase enzyme system, which provides the biochemical machinery for nitrogen fixation, consists of two component metalloproteins, the molybdenumiron Mo Fe protein and the iron Fe protein. Nitrogen fixation is a very energy-intensive process, requiring around 16 moles of ATP for each mol of N 2 fixed reduced.

As a consequence, synthesis and activity of nitrogenase is tighty regulated at two levels: general and specific. The general level regulation is mediated by the ntr nitrogen regulation system. Two gene products are involved: the ntrB gene product NtrB is responsible for the activation of the ntrC gene product NtrC by phosphorylating a conserved Asp54, which activates the expression of the nifA gene. The aim of this project is to solve the crystal structure of dinitrogenase reductase iron protein and dinitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein from Azospirilim brasiliense and the regulatory proteins NifA from Herbaspirillum seropedicae and NtrC Azospirillum brasiliense.

The three dimensional structure of the proteins involved in this project will allow a better understanding of the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation.

To this end, the data collection will probably be done at the LNLS facilities which will be available in the near future.

Kroyeria brasiliense sp. Full Text Available Kroyeria brasiliense sp. The maxillipeds of the new species are large and project well beyond the lateral margins of the cephalothorax. Those of K. The third endopodal segments of K. The second and third endopodal segments of the new species are rounded, of similar length and lack teeth. Os terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos de K. Experimental and artificial neural network based prediction of performance and emission characteristics of DI diesel engine using Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester at different nozzle opening pressure.

An ANN model can predict the performance of diesel engine and the exhaust emissions with correlation coefficient R2 in the range of 0. It is evident that the ANN models are reliable tools for the prediction of DI diesel engine performance and emissions. The test results show that the optimum NOP is bar with B Response of spores and young gametophytes of Cyathea delgadii Sternb. Cyatheaceae and Blechnum brasiliense Desv.

Cyatheaceae e Blechnum brasiliense Desv. Full Text Available Light is a limiting factor for fern stablishment because it controls germination of light sensitive spores. The aim of this work was to study the effect of light levels on spore germination in two ornamental ferns native to the Atlantic forest, under natural conditions.

Cyathea delgadii is a tree fern and Blechnum brasiliense , a subarborescent fern. Sterilized spores were sown in Erlenmeyer flasks containing mineral culture medium with macronutrients, iron, and benomyl 0. Irradiance and temperature were scored daily at h during the study period. The highest light levels inhibited spore germination and the gametophytes died during the test period.

Esporos esterilizados foram inoculados em "erlenmeyers" contendo meio de cultura composto pormacronutrientes, ferro e. Traditional knowledge and uses of the Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. Full Text Available Abstract Local knowledge of biodiversity has been applied in support of research focused on utilizing and management of natural resources and promotion of conservation. Among these resources, Pequi Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.

Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and crossing. Borers folivorous caterpillars that attack trunks and roots were the most common pests cited. According to the respondents, young individuals of Pequi are the most affected by fire due to their smaller size and thinner bark. Recognition of the cultural and ecological importance of Pequi has mobilized the community, which has shown interest in incorporating this species as an alternative source of income.

Seedlings of C. The percentage of C. The results suggested that inoculation of AM fungi could improve the early growth of C. Alcohol is used as an additive for a long time with the petroleum-based fuels. The nitrogen oxide NO emission of the pentanol fuel blends showed an increased value than CI20 and neat diesel fuel.

The carbon dioxide CO 2 also increased with increase in pentanol addition with the fuel blends than CI20 fuel blend and diesel. The carbon monoxide CO and hydrocarbon HC emissions were decreased with increase in pentanol proportion in the blend than the CI20 fuel and diesel. The smoke emission was reduced and the combustion characteristics of the engine were also improved by using pentanol blended fuels.

Full Text Available Cupania vernalis Camb. Cupania vernalis Camb. This species has great economical importance by its use in mixed plantings trying to recovery permanent degraded and preservation areas. This study aimed, basically, at characterizing the ecophysiological aspects of this species under nursery conditions. Full Text Available The accentuated increase in the use of medicinal plants by the population to treat diseases makes it necessary to carry out pharmacological studies in order to contribute to the scientific knowledge and clarify the mechanisms involved in the main compounds present in these plants.

Due to the difficulty of combating antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, plants become a low-cost and effective alternative. The stem, fruit, and leaves of plants are used to measure antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity and to combat the oxidative degradation of free radicals produced in the presence of xenobiotics. A systematic review is a powerful tool that incorporates the variability among the studies, providing an overall estimate of the use of plant extracts as antioxidants and antimicrobial activities.

In view of the controversies in the literature regarding the use of compounds from plants or the isolation and purification of the main substances for the prevention of bacterial various therapeutic actions, the aim of this was to present a systematic review on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of cashew Anacardium occidentale, cajui Anacardium microcarpum, and pequi Caryocar brasiliense. Out of articles, 33 articles have been used in this study, which were also represented in the Prisma Statement.

In vitro antioxidant tests were conducted in 28 studies using different methodologies. Most of the tests involving the studied species demonstrated positive antioxidant potential and antimicrobial properties.

The results provide important data and perspectives into the use of natural products that can contribute to the treatment of various diseases.

Pharmacognostic evaluation, and development and validation of a HPLC-DAD technique for gallocatechin and epigallocatechin in rhizomes from Limonium brasiliense.

Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, is a plant from the southern coast of Brazilian that is used for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, menstrual disorders and genito-urinary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality control parameters for rhizomes collected during different periods by pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods, and to develop and validate a HPLC-DAD method for quantitative control of marker substances.

The highly unbalanced nature of bio-oil composition poses a serious threat in terms of storage and utilization of bio-oil as a viable fuel in engines. So it becomes inevitable to study the variations in physicochemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to value its chemical instability, for designing stabilization methodologies.

The present study aims to investigate the effects of storage stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum CI deoiled seed cake on the engine operating characteristics. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to analytically characterize the unaged and aged bio-oil samples.

Engine testing of the bio-oil sample revealed that aged bio-oil samples deteriorated engine performance and increased emission levels at the exhaust. The oxidatively aged sample showed the lowest BTE The direction of the emulsions was evaluated by dilution method and by macroscopic analysis, the appearance, homogeneity and organoleptic properties were evaluated. To evaluate the accelerated stability, the samples were stored at different stress conditions and evaluated the pH value, macroscopic analysis and rheological.

African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 14, No 40 Full Text Available The action of parasitoid Anastatus sp. In these regions, D. To obtain eggs, a D. Among 1, eggs obtained in laboratory conditions, From eggs collected in the field, These data suggest the possibility of using this parasitoid for the pequi caterpillar control, which also causes serious damage on Eucalyptus sp. Analytical characterization of products obtained from slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum seed cake: study on performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with bio-oil blends.

This paper aims to analyse the characteristics and properties of the fractions obtained from slow pyrolysis of non-edible seed cake of Calophyllum inophyllum CI.

Owing to the high volatile content of CI biomass GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of higher amount of oxygenated compounds, phenol derivatives, esters, acid and furans. The physicochemical properties of the bio-oil were tested as per ASTM norms which imply that bio-oil is a highly viscous liquid with lower heating value as compared to that of diesel fuel. The chemical composition of evolved gas was analysed by using GC testing which revealed the presence of combustible components.

The FT-IR characterization of biochar showed the presence of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons whereas the elevated amount of carbon in biochar indicates its potential to be used as solid fuel. The performance and emission characteristics of CI engine were assessed with different CI bio-oil blends and compared with baseline diesel fuel. The results showed that addition of bio-oil leads to decreased brake thermal efficiency and increased brake specific energy consumption.

Meanwhile, increase in blend ratio reduces harmful pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and smoke in the exhaust. Ni metal was impregnated into bentonite with two steps reaction; therewas intercalation with Al2O3kegging ion and Ni metal impregnation using NiCl2 metal salt. Hydrocracking oil products were further analyzed by GC-MS. Impregnation process also increased the acidity of bentonite from These techniques were also causeddealumination of bentonite.

The hydrocracking process successfully synthesized hydrocarbons with a number of carbon chain between C5-C20 which include bio-gasoline group compounds. Marchand, Podocarpus sellowii Klotzch. Purpose: To search for new acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitors from The authors acknowledge financial support from.

In vitro growth-inhibitory activity of Calophyllum inophyllum ethanol In the territory of Pacific Islands, diarrhoea Identification of phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves. Conclusions: C. It was found that C. The separation, isolation, and purification of bioactive compounds from this methanolic crude extract and their biological activity are under further investigation.

Antimicrobial screening of some medicinal plants from Mato Grosso Cerrado. Full Text Available Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from stem barks of Bowdichia virgilioides, Calophyllum brasiliense , Cariniana rubra, Lafoensia pacari, and Stryphnodendron obovatum and rhizome of Simaba ferruginea and Dragon's blood red sap from Croton urucurana were screened against a panel of bacteria and fungi using the micro-broth dilution method.

Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana was the most effective antimicrobial plant material. Ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense stem bark deserved distinction by their selective antibacterial activity. Lafoensia pacari stem bark polar extracts distinguished by their potent and selective anti-yeast activity and Bowdichia virgilioides polar and non-polar extracts by their antifungal activity towards hyalohypho-mycetes and dermatophytes. This is the first report showing antifungal activity for polar extracts of Cariniana rubra and Simaba ferruginea.

This study has demonstrated antimicrobial activity of Mato Grosso Cerrado ethnomedicinal plants in in vitro assays and has indicated that they can be effective potential candidates for the development of new strategies to treat fungal and bacterial infections. Pequi pulp Caryocar brasiliense Cambess : Drying kinetics and The entropy values found were Mol-1K-1 for the same temperatures. The values obtained from the Gibbs free energy for the drying of Pequi pulp increased with increasing temperature.

The obtained data were consistent to the drying process, and the mathematical equations were effective Trypanocidal constituents in plants: 7.

Mammea-type coumarins. Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense and Mammea americana Clusiaceae are two trees from the tropical rain forests of the American continent. A previous screening showed high trypanocidal activity in the extracts of these species. Several mammea-type coumarins, triterpenoids and biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of C. These compounds were tested in vitro against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease.

Other compounds from C. The isopropylidenedioxy derivative of shikimic acid was inactive, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Our results suggest that mammea-type coumarins could be a valuable source of trypanocidal compounds. First record of Scleroderma polyrhizum Pers.

Gasteromycetes from Brazil Primeiro registro de Scleroderma polyrhizum Pers. Gasteromycetes para o Brasil. Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal, gasteroid fungus, Scleroderma polyrhizum is recorded from Brazil for the first time, growing under Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

Caryocaraceae a widespread native tree of the Brazilian "cerrado" vegetation. Macro and microscopic features were described using basidiocarps from fresh and dried material treated according to the traditional methodology for Gasteromycetes.

The characteristics of the material were close to those of the original description given by Persoon. All material collected was associated with roots of C brasiliense. Charcoal anatomy of forest species. Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal.

Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. Full Text Available The establishment of fruit and medicinal native species of Savannah may soften the negative environmenta aspect arising from deforestation, and improve their utilization which today is restricted to local populations.

However, it depends on a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of these species. It aims to assess the nutritional aspects and effects of nutrients in the absence of development of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. An experiment was conducted in pots, red-yellow Oxisol substrate of low fertility in the greenhouse. The plants were harvested and separated into air shoot and root system. The fatty acid contents were determined by GC-MS. The three types of passion fruit oils studied were refined, cold pressed or extracted from seeds in a Soxhlet apparatus.

The oils thus obtained showed differences in antioxidant activity and carotenoid content, but were similar in regard to total phenols. Buriti and pequi had the highest carotenoid contents, while refined and cold pressed passion fruit oil displayed the highest antioxidant activity.

Pequi oil was the only oil to display antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive.

Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits.

Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Hill lobeira , Spondias mombin L. Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Hill lobeira, Spondias mombin L. Full Text Available Tanaman nyamplung atau hutaulo merupakan tanaman yang tumbuh di banyak tempat di Indonesia. Tanaman ini menghasilkan biji yang mempunyai kadar minyak yang tinggi dan dapat diubah menjadi biodiesel.

Salah satu masalah dalam proses purifikasi pencucian biodiesel kasar adalah kebutuhan air dan energi yang tinggi untuk pemanasan air tersebut. Rasio molar minyak nyamplung dan metanol adalah 1 : 11,5. Energy self sufficient village program aims to improve stock and diverse energy source and society economic opportunity. Nyamplung is very potential plant to be used as raw material of biofuel, because it has very high fat plant content and has not be used for food.

The biofuel from nyamplung is a new innovation. Involvement of forest village community in biofuel industry development both as producers and as consumers is very important. Forestry Ministry has established demonstration plots in Buluagung and Patutrejo villages as a facilitation in developing biofuel nyamplung silvoindustry.

Up to now, the demplots still faces some problems. The researh method was qualitatif analysis. Collecting data from 62 respondents using purposive sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires, field obsevation, and in-depth interview.

Research results show that the demplots have not been developed through participatory approach. Involvement of community to demplots activity is low. Involvement of the village communities are significantly correlated to biofuel price, technology innovation, role of demplot and support from local leaders. Conformational analysis of phloroglucinols from hypericum Brasiliense by using x-ray diffraction and molecular modeling. Leal, Katia Z. Faculdade de Farmacia.

In this work we intend to verify the applicability of a computational methodology to predict structural features of organic compounds with biological activity. We selected three phloroglucinols and compared their calculated conformational data with their X-ray crystallographic structure.

Effect of temperature and the light on germination of Nicotiana longiflora Cavaniles and Oenothera indecora Camb. Con temperaturas alternadas, N.

A partir de la temperatura base se puede inferir que N. Nicotiana longiflora and Oenothera indecora are species of recent appearance in croplands in the Argentine humid pampa zone and there is a lack of knowledge about the environmental factors affecting their germination.

The temperature and light requirements for germination and the base temperature of both species were determined. All plant growth regulator PGR treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity.

The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency P Gamma radiation effect on Populus nigra assimilatory pigments.

The influence of low intensity gamma radiation on the photosynthesis in young poplar saplings was studied. Black poplar Populus nigra was chosen due to its ecological importance, as fast growing tree species with many hybrids, in the frame of a polluted environment. Assimilatory pigments in the leaves of irradiated saplings were assayed using standard spectrophotometric method in acetone extract. Series of five saplings formed the experimental samples.

Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b levels appeared as diminished in exposed samples in comparison to the controls.

Linear regression was established in every case, the line slope showing the higher effect in chlorophyll b. Carotene pigments presented a slight increasing tendency in the exposed samples.

Assimilatory pigment sum was shown to be affected by the same decreasing tendency. Student t-test was applied two tailed, pair type to reveal statistical significance of observed modifications. Though not very deep, the modifications induced by exposure to gamma radiation of low intensity comparable to the local atmospheric variations, caused by both natural and artificial sources represent putative inhibitory factors in young plant photosynthesis. The main mechanism of radiation action seems to be water radiolysis, triggering peroxide cascade, generally producing toxic products for the cell metabolism.

Nevertheless, living cell ability to repair some damages caused by external stress could be revealed in the present case by the enhancing tendency of the carotenes which sustain photosynthesis as secondary pigments.

Substantia nigra depigmentation and exposure to encephalitis lethargica. Parkinsonism has occasionally been reported as a consequence of infectious diseases. The present study examines the clinical and pathological correlates of parkinsonism across birth cohorts in relation to critical exposure to the encephalitis lethargica epidemic in the early s.

The study population consisted of participants in the Nun Study, of whom died and came to autopsy. Qualitative indices of substantia nigra SN depigmentation were verified in a subset of 40 randomly selected subjects using quantitative stereological techniques.

SN depigmentation, detected neuropathologically, was correlated with clinical parameters of Parkinson disease, age, and birth cohort.

SN depigmentation was detected in 57 Quantitative measures of SN depigmentation were increased in this birth cohort compared to age matched subjects from flanking birth cohorts and p Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons.

The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata SNr are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons?

Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of INaT , contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons.

In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators.

Mycorrhization of containerised Pinus nigra seedlings with Suillus granulatus under open field conditions. Seedling mycorrhization acts as an efficient tool for improving the quality of seedlings. In this study, the effectiveness of Suillus granulatus, originating from Pinus heldreichii forests Montenegro , to produce containerized ectomycorrhizal seedlings of autochthonous Pinus nigra in open field conditions was investigated.

Spore , , and vegetative , , inoculation on ectomycorrhizal formation and seedling growth were tested. Spore and vegetative inoculums of autochthonous Pisolithus arhizus were used in the same trial as additional control treatments.

The utilization of vegetative and spore inoculums of autochthonous S. Mycelial inoculations resulted in slightly developed S. Therefore, it would be feasible to use spore inocula of S. Controlled mycorrhizal inoculation of seedlings is not a common practice in Montenegrin and Serbian nurseries; as such, the obtained results will contribute to the enhancement of nursery production of Pinus nigra and other conifers.

This also could be assumed as a starting point for many further efforts and investigations with autochthonous fungal and plant material in this region. Author 47 refs. The structural characteristics of the substantia nigra were studied microscopically and quantified using computer morphometric methods at brain autopsies of individuals with Parkinson's disease who had died from intercurrent diseases and those who had no evidence of neurological disorders in their history a control group.

This investigation could clarify the features of morphochemical changes in both the neural network structures and the glial populations of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease.

The number of neurons containing tyrosine hydroxylase a marker of dopamine neurons in the compact part of the substantia nigra a ventral region was smaller and the density distribution of Lewy bodies was higher in the patients with Parkinson's disease than in the control group.

The accumulation of iron II compounds in the cellular elements and neuropile and the increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in Parkinson's disease were more pronounced than those in the controls. Postmortem diagnosis in Parkinson's disease should be based on a full description of a set of neuronal and glial morphochemical and structural changes in the substantia nigra rather than on the identification of cellular markers for the neurodegenerative process.

Infusion of opiates into substantia nigra protects against maximal electroshock seizures in rats. Microinfusion of morphine sulfate 50 nmol , [d-Ala2]-Met-enkephalin 35 nmol or dynorphin A 1 nmol bilaterally into the substantia nigra significantly attenuated seizures induced by maximal electroshock in rats. This action was accompanied by stereotyped behavioral hyperactivity.

These anticonvulsant and behavioral effects were antagonized by systemic naloxone administration; neither effect was observed after intranigral microinjection of dynorphin A amide 1 nmol.

These results are consistent with a mu opiate receptor-mediated inhibition of substantia nigra efferent neurons, and with the proposal that bilateral inhibition of nigral efferents attenuates seizure propagation. However, intranigral morphine failed to alter the severity of i.

Variation of leaf margin serration in Populus nigra of industrial dumps. The value of this indicator is in the range from 1. From the number of selected gradations of P. The degree of serration of edge leaf blade is characterized by low values of variation — coefficient of variation is less than We registered the significant positive correlation between the average values of leaf margin serration and the length of P.

Development of Brassica oleracea- nigra monosomic alien addition lines: genotypic, cytological and morphological analyses. We report the development and characterization of Brassica oleracea - nigra monosomic alien addition lines MAALs to dissect the Brassica B genome.

To dissect the B genome from B. Most of these MAALs were distinguishable morphologically from each other, as they expressed the characters from B. The alien chromosome remained unpaired as a univalent in Transmission frequency of all the added chromosomes was far higher through the ovules averagely The B1, B4 and B5 chromosomes were transmitted by female at much higher rates Insights into some physiological and biochemical responses of Populus alba and Populus nigra to lead contamination.

Six weeks after establishing in target concentration, the amount of lead, biomass, water, soluble sugars, proline, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde, and pigments were assessed in different organs.

The results revealed that with increasing lead concentration in culture medium in the studied period, the amount of lead in saplings increased, but no effect was observed on their biomass. In both species the magnitude of lead accumulation in root was higher than leaf. The concentration of soluble sugars increased up to 1.

Elevation of electrolyte leakage in saplings of P. Concentrations of pigments were not affected by lead, and only the ratio of chlorophyll a to b in P. In general both species accumulated high extent of lead in their organs. But it seems that P. The ventral tegmental area VTA and substantia nigra pars compacta SNc may provide modulatory signals that, respectively, influence hippocampal HPC - and striatal-dependent memory.

Electrophysiological studies investigating neural correlates of learning and memory of dopamine DA neurons during classical conditioning tasks have found DA…. Effect of variety on content of bioactive phenolic compounds in common elder Sambucus nigra L. Composition of the essential oils of Pinus nigra Arnold from Turkey.

The main components in the oils were a-pinene, b-pinene, b-caryophyllene, and germacrene D. Rapid in vitro shoot multiplication of the recalcitrant species Juglans nigra L.

Black walnut Juglans nigra L. Vegetative and in vitro black walnut propagation techniques, however, are variable and highly genotype dependent. Optimizing plant growth regulator type and Eight patients, aged years, with idiopathic Parkinson disease were studied to determine whether the characteristic degeneration of the substantia nigra zona compacta , seen pathologically, could be identified in vivo on T2-weighted proton MR imaging 1.

The mean width of the substantia nigra in the eight patients was 4. These changes on MR imaging are probably due to atrophy of the zona compacta of the substantia nigra , but excess iron in the zona reticulata may partially contribute to these findings. MR imaging may be useful for differentiating ''classic'' Parkinson disease from other extrapyramidal degenerative disorders and for predicting response to drug therapy.

Wood Anatomical Structure of Morus alba L. Full Text Available Iran is a wast country with many different tree species. Among those there are two species of Morus genus including alba and nigra.

In order to investigate the possible replacement choices, this study has been carried out to investigate the anatomical differences and similarities between these two species.

Wood samples of the two species have been collected from same site and microsections for light microscopic studies and maceration samples have been prepared.

The most important similarities between them are: vessel solitary in short radial multiples or irregular clusters, fiber nonseptate, rays uniseriate and multiseriate type, paratracheal parenchyma, varying from vasicentric to aliform confluent, apotracheal as marginal bands, Rhombic crystals present in rays and sometimes in parenchyma.

The main differences are: semi-ring porous distribution of vessels in M. Taking these results into consideration, the most important features of both species are similar and it could be recommended to use the nigra species as well as the alba for making musical instruments.

Lead tolerance of Populus nigra in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to physiological parameters. Mycorrhizal colonization and physiological parameters of plants were measured at the end of growth season.

Results showed that at all Pb levels, the percentage of root mycorrhizal colonization in fungal treatments was significantly higher than that in control treatment without fungal inoculation , however without significant differences between 3 fungal treatments. Pb treatments had no significant effect on root mycorrhizal colonization of P. Also, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, intercellular CO2 concentration and water use efficiency of P.

The results of present study demonstrated that fungal treatments had no significant effects on physiological parameters and Pb tolerance of P. While, in relation to mycorrhizal colonization and physiological parameters, P. So, in further investigations of phytoremediation of lead-contaminated soils, this clone can be considered as a proposed species.

Molecular genetic analysis of black poplar Populus nigra L. The genetic structure of remaining black poplar Populus nigra trees on the banks of the Dutch Rhine branches was investigated using the AFLP technique. In total, trees, including one P. Habitat characteristics at den sites of the Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra. The Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra is a federally listed endangered species, but has been the subject of few studies.

Mountain beavers use burrows that include a single subterranean den. Foremost among the information needs for this subspecies is a description of the above-ground habitat features associated with dens.

Reproductive characteristics of the Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra. Little is known about the ecology and life history of the federally endangered Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra. Fundamental to protecting this taxon Identification of the nematodes was confirmed by morphological examination of the specimens collected. The ornamentation of the body cuticle in caudal region of males area rugosa is first described in D.

Neurosteroid biosynthetic pathway changes in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease. There is emerging evidence from animal studies for a neuroprotective role of sex steroids in neurodegenerative diseases, but studies in human brain are lacking. We have carried out an extensive study of the neurosteroid biosynthetic pathways in substantia nigra SN , caudate nucleus CN and putamen.

Developing new microsatellite markers in walnut Juglans regia L. We attempted to develop new polymorphic SSR primer pairs in walnut using sequences derived from Juglans nigra L. The designed 94 SSR primer pairs were subjected to gradient PCR in 12 walnut cultivars to determine their optimum annealing temperatures and to determine whether they produce bands. Then, the Stimulation of the substantia nigra influences the specification of memory-guided saccades.

In the absence of sensory information, we rely on past experience or memories to guide our actions. Because previous experimental and clinical reports implicate basal ganglia nuclei in the generation of movement in the absence of sensory stimuli, we ask here whether one output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata nigra , influences the specification of an eye movement in the absence of sensory information to guide the movement.

We manipulated the level of activity of neurons in the nigra by introducing electrical stimulation to the nigra at different time intervals while monkeys made saccades to different locations in two conditions: one in which the target location remained visible and a second in which the target location appeared only briefly, requiring information stored in memory to specify the movement.

Electrical manipulation of the nigra occurring during the delay period of the task, when information about the target was maintained in memory, altered the direction and the occurrence of subsequent saccades.

Stimulation during other intervals of the memory task or during the delay period of the visually guided saccade task had less effect on eye movements. When the visual stimulus was present, stimulation of the nigra resulted in no significant rotation and decreased the reaction time of contralaterally directed saccades slightly. Based on these measurements, stimulation during the delay period of the memory-guided saccade task influenced the metrics of saccades much more than did stimulation during the same period of the visually guided saccade task.

Because these effects. Crop species of Brassica Brassicaceae consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species.

The genome of B. The cox gene present in B. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B.

In addition, the B. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. Genetic differentiation and spatial structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease in black walnut Juglans nigra. Full Text Available Morphological and molecular data on the type-species of Chaunocephalus Dietz, , Chaunocephalus ferox Rudolphi, is provided based on material collected from the type-host, Ciconia nigra Linnaeus, from Kiev Zoo, Ukraine. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity.

Full Text Available Pandit R. Nusantara Bioscience 7: We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Brassica nigra.

UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at nm which indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles Tracking and Analysis NTA was used to determine the size of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Zeta potential analysis was carried out to study the stability of nanoparticles while FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins as capping agents that provided stability to nanoparticles in colloid. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

The activity of Vancomycin was significantly increased in combination with silver nanoparticles showing synergistic activity against all bacteria while the maximum activity was noted against P.

Reproductive biology and food habits of Pseudoboa nigra Serpentes: Dipsadidae from the Brazilian cerrado. Full Text Available Herein we provide data on body size, sexual size dimorphism,reproductive cycle, and food habits of the pseudoboini snake Pseudoboa nigra , which is distributed mainly in central South America throughout the Cerrado domain.

Based on dissections of preserved specimens, it is shown that females attain, and mature at,larger body sizes than males. There is no significant sexual dimorphism in head length, but males have longer tails relative to their body sizes. Vitellogenesis, egg-laying, and sperm production occur throughout the year, but males do not exhibit long-term sperm storage.

The main prey of P. Electrophysiological localization of distinct calcium potentials at selective somatodendritic sites in the substantia nigra. In one class of neurons, which discharge in a "phasic" fashion and are located The dendrites of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra play a pivotal role in the neurochemical homeostasis of the nucleus. It is conceivable therefore that the cell body and dendrites of these nigral neurons possess distinct and independent electro-responsive features.

By means The differential localization of these calcium conductances in sub-populations of neurons is likely to determine the functions for the calcium responses in each type of neuron, and moreover highlight the dendrites as dynamic Although the etiology of PD is unknown, but major biochemical processes such as oxidative stress is largely described. Morus nigra L. Muscle stiffness and apomorphine test were assessed in 6 rats of any groups after two weeks.

Protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and ACE activity were assessed in brains of 6 rats of each group after 24 hours. Protein oxidation in Morus nigra group was significantly lower than neurotoxin group.

Brain ACE activity in neurotoxin, captopril and Morus nigra groups were inhibited. Conclusion: Morus nigra L. Conclusions: We present a histologically validated anatomical description of the substantia nigra on high field spin-echo high resolution magnetic resonance images and were able to delineate all five nigrosomes. In accordance with the pathological literature we did not observe changes in the nigrosome structure as manifest by volume or signal characteristics within the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease whereas in progressive supranuclear palsy there was microarchitectural destruction.

The development of hyperhydric tissue on the stems of Sambucus nigra L. Full Text Available Hyperhydric intumescences on the stems of Sambucus nigra arise in places where the stem lenticels are immersed in water. The hyperhydric tissue develops through the transformation of the multilayered phelloderm, the parenchyma of the cortex.

The phellogen loses its meristematic properties and is either incorporated into the developing hyperhydric tissue or crushed. The succesive stages of hyperhydric changes which depend on the intense growth of cells and on the ability to devide acquired by them are presented. The stability of rutin and chlorogenic acid during the processing of black elder Sambucus nigra inflorescence.

To enhance the bleaching efficiency, the activator of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine TAED was used in conventional H2O2 bleaching. In this research, the process with hydrogen peroxide activated by TAED bleaching of Populus nigra chemi-thermo mechanical pulp was optimized.

Suitable bleaching conditions were confirmed as follows: pulp con Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of various extracts of different Morus species, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of M.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of M. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase activity was investigated using luminometric analysis. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were the major phenolic compounds detected at HPLC analysis. DEM arrested the cell cycle of PC-3 cells at the G1 phase, induced apoptosis via increased caspase activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that M. White piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra : contribution to the diagnosis of superficial mycosis. Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra.

This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries. Intra- and interpopulation relationships and taxonomic status of Pinus nigra Arnold in Croatia according to morphology and anatomy of needles.

Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational relationships and taxonomic status of six natural black pine populations Pinus nigra Arnold from Croatia were analyzed.

Special attention in this research was paid to the establishment of taxonomic status and distribution of stenoendemic Dalmatian black pine Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. Three morphological and twenty-one anatomical traits of needles were used as well as analysis by the methods of multivariate statistics. Most of the researched individuals showed strong population affiliation, whereas a clinal transition of morphological and anatomical traits of needles was determined among the populations.

The opinion of the existence of three subspecies of black pine on the territory of Republic of Croatia Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. Franco and Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. Fukarek was confirmed. For each of the three subspecies new ranges were represented. Since the Dalmatian black pine has been reduced to several populations only, and there are some signs of continuous diminishing of its range, this research points out the need of making an action plan to preserve all natural populations of this subspecies.

Dalbergia nigra is one of the most valuable timber species of its genus, having been traded for over years. Current methods, primarily comparative wood anatomy, are inadequate for conclusive species identification.

This study aims to find a set of anatomical characters that distinguish the wood of D. Dalbergia cearensis and D. Principal components analysis was unable to provide any further basis for separating the species. Wood anatomy alone cannot distinguish D. Diagnostic value of combined assessment of olfaction and sustantia nigra hyperechogenicity for Parkinson's disease.

We evaluated the combined prevalence of both disorders in patients diagnosed with PD and assessed their diagnostic yield compared to a sample with essential tremor ET and another group of healthy subjects. Patients diagnosed with PD and ET and treated in our outpatient clinic were enrolled. A total of 98 subjects were analysed, comprising 30 with PD, 21 with ET, and 47 controls. The respective prevalence rates of hyposmia SS Combined use of substantia nigra sonography and olfactory testing with SS, two rapid, safe, and accessible tests, was more specific than each isolated marker for distinguishing patients with PD from patients with ET and control subjects.

Since both markers have been described in very early phases of PD, combined use may be helpful in providing early diagnosis of PD. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra. When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions.

The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P.

Full Text Available The aim of the study is to measure the in vitro antioxidant activity of elderberry Sambucus nigra fruit extract and to study its toxicity in a plant model system with regard to its possible application in food and agricultural industry. The antioxidant capacity of Sambucus nigra fruit powder was quantified by a photochemiluminescence method.

The study of phytotoxicity of aqueous solutions of powder extract was performed using Allium cepa as a test organism. Photochemiluminescence determinations showed a very high antioxidant capacity of the product but also revealed its cytotoxic effect, along with mitodepressive activity and even inhibiton of mitosis at the preprophase stage when the fruit extract was used at higher concentrations. At lower concentrations 0. The conclusion of our study is that Sambucus nigra fruit extract powder has a very high in vitro antioxidant activity and no mutagenic effects at low concentrations, which makes it recommendable for applications in the food industry.

Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs were analysed in pine needles of different ages from 6 to 30 months collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa Italy.

In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene. Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles.

E-mail: chimamb istge. Apelin ameliorates cognitive impairments in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced substantia nigra lesion in rats. Although Parkinson's disease PD is well known with its motor deficits, the patients often suffer from cognitive dysfunction.

Apelin, as the endogenous ligand of the APJ receptor, is found in several brain regions such as substantia nigra and mesolimbic pathway. However, the role of apelin in cognition and cognitive disorders has not been fully clarified. In this study the effects of apelin were investigated on cognitive disorders in rat Parkinsonism experimental model.

Morris water maze MWM , object location and novel object recognition tests were performed one month after the apelin injection. In conclusion, the data support the pro-cognitive property of apelin in 6-OHDA-induced cognitive deficit and provided a new pharmacological aspect of the neuropeptide apelin. In vitro antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities, phytochemical screening and heavy metals toxicity of different parts of Ballota nigra.

The study was done to assess the phytochemicals flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannin, alkaloids, and phenol in different parts root, stem, and leaves of Ballota nigra and correlated it to inhibition of microbes bacteria and fungi , protozoan Leishmania , and heavy metals toxicity evaluation.

In root and stem flavonoids, terpenes and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fraction; these were found to be the most active inhibiting fractions against all the tested strains of bacteria, fungi, and leishmania. While in leaves flavonoids, terpenes, and phenols were present in ethanol, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions which were the most active fractions against both types of microbes and protozoan leishmania in in vitro study.

Ethanol and chloroform fractions show maximum inhibition against Escherichia coli 17 mm. The phytochemical and biological screenings were correlated with the presence of heavy metals in selected plant Ballota nigra.

Cr was found above permissible value above 1. Ni was above WHO limit in B. Fe was above permissible value in all parts of B. Cd was above permissible value in all parts of the plant above 0. Cytoarchitectural neuroimaging remains critical for diagnosis of many brain diseases. Fluorescent dye-enhanced, near-infrared confocal in situ cellular imaging of the brain has been reported.

However, impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to most fluorescent dyes limits clinical utility of this modality. The differential degree of reflectance from brain tissue with unenhanced near-infrared imaging may represent an alternative technique for in situ cytoarchitectural neuroimaging.

We assessed the utility of unenhanced near-infrared confocal laser reflectance imaging of the cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra in 2 fresh human cadaver brains using a confocal near-infrared laser probe.

Parts of the cerebellum and substantia nigra imaged using the probe were subsequently excised and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic correlation. Near-infrared reflectance imaging revealed the 3-layered cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum, with Purkinje cells appearing hyperreflectant.

In the substantia nigra , neurons appeared hyporeflectant with hyperreflectant neuromelanin cytoplasmic inclusions. Cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra revealed on near-infrared imaging closely correlated with the histology on hematoxylin-eosin staining. We showed that unenhanced near-infrared reflectance imaging of fresh human cadaver brain can reliably identify and distinguish neurons and detailed cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum and substantia nigra. Functional recovery of supersensitive dopamine receptors after intrastriatal grafts of fetal substantia nigra.

Interruption of the ascending dopamine neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway, by 6-hydroxydopamine 6-OHDA lesion in rats, produced a significant loss of the dopamine transport complexes labeled with the phencyclidine derivative [3H]BTCP.

This loss of dopamine innervation in the striatum was present at least 12 to 14 months after lesioning and was functionally manifested by ipsilateral rotation of the animals in response to amphetamine. In these same animals, in comparison to controls, there was a significant increase in the number Bmax of [3H]SCH labeled D-1 receptors in the striatum Ten to twelve months after the transplantation of homologous fetal substantia nigra into the denervated striatum, there was a significant decrease in amphetamine-induced turning behavior.

In these animals, there was an ingrowth of dopamine nerve terminals in the striatum as demonstrated by a return of [3H]BTCP binding. Accompanying this reinnervation was the normalization of D-1 and D-2 receptors to control values in the striatum as well as the return of D-1 receptors to prelesion densities in the substantia nigra. In a subgroup of transplanted rats, amphetamine continued to induce ipsilateral turning.

In these animals both D-1 and D-2 receptors remained supersensitive. These results support the hypothesis that the functional recovery of transplanted animals is due, in part, to reinnervation of the striatum. In addition, long-term alterations in receptor density may be related to the behavioral deficits that are associated with the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat. Morphological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of black mulberry fruits Morus nigra L.

This work aimed at the morphological, biochemical, technological and sensorial determination of black mulberry Morus nigra L. For the experimental purposes were selected 50 genotypes of this population grown in the Pukanec surroundings. The medium fruitage weight determined in the selected collection ranged from 7.

Ultrasonic measurements along profiles at the surface of an object are well suited to characterize non-destructively weathering of natural stone near the surface. Ultrasonic waveforms of surface measurements in the frequency range between 10 kHz and kHz are often dominated by the Rayleigh wave - a surface wave that is mainly sensitive to the velocity and attenuation of S-waves in the upper 0.

The frequency dependence of the Rayleigh wave velocity may be used to analyze variations of the material properties with depth. Applications of ultrasonic surface measurements are shown for two buildings: the Roman Porta Nigra in Trier from the 3rd century AD and the Neptungrotte at Park Sanssouci in Potsdam designed by von Knobelsdorff in the 18th century. Both buildings belong to the world cultural heritage and restorations are planned for the near future.

It is interesting to compare measurements at these two buildings because they show the applicability of ultrasonic surface measurements to different natural stones. The Porta Nigra is made of local sandstones whereas the facades of the Neptungrotte are made of Carrara and Kauffunger marble.

At both buildings, Rayleigh-wave group velocities show huge variations. At the Porta Nigra they vary between ca. Note that velocities of elastic waves may increase e. The accuracy of the ultrasonic surface measurements, its reproducibility, and the influence of varying water saturation are discussed. Options for the analysis of ultrasonic waveforms are presented ranging from dispersion analysis to full waveform inversions for one-dimensional and two.

Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of prenylated substances isolated from Morus alba and Morus nigra. Chromatographic separation of root extracts of Morus alba and M. Full Text Available The effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit were studied in streptozotocin- STZ- induced hyperglycemic rats to evaluate its possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiglycosylation activity, and antiosteoporosis effects in diabetes.

Poplars accumulate high B concentrations and are thus used for the phytomanagement of B contaminated soils. Salix viminalis, Brassica juncea, and Lupinus albus were grown under some growing conditions for comparison. Poplar growth was unaffected at soil B treatment levels up to 93 mg kg Growth was progressively reduced at levels of and mg kg None of the other species survived at these substrate B levels.

At leaf B concentrations toxicity. The B accumulation ability of P. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra. Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein.

The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused left vs. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences.

In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

Morus nigra plant leaves as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring. Daud, M. Chemistry Div. The present paper deals with the determination of 36 elements in leaf samples of Morus nigra plant to assess their potential as biomonitor for elemental air pollution monitoring.

The leaf samples were collected in spring, summer and winter seasons from various sites in Islamabad with different types of anthropogenic activities as well as from a reference site with minimum of such activities. Twenty four soil samples from the respective sites were also analyzed. The reliability of the adopted procedures was established by analyzing the certified reference materials, i.

The enrichment values and Pollution Load Index PLI of the determined elements were computed and discussed accordingly. The elemental translocation from soil to roots, stem and leaves has also been studied by analyzing these parts of the same plant.

The results indicated that the leaves of Morus nigra plant have promising potential to monitor the extent of air pollution in the vicinity of industrial as well as in high traffic areas. The subspecific characters and distribution of the New World Skimmers - Rynchops nigra The subspecific characters and distribution of the New World Skimmers - Rynchops nigra.

Full Text Available The distribution of the forms of the New World rayador, or skimmer, Rynchops nigra , and the characters that mark the geographic races, have been matters of interest to me for a number of years, an interest heightened by recent discussions in current literature of the identity of the birds found on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and far to the south in Chile.

Investigation into these matters with the material available in the National Museum not being conclusive, specimens from Mexico and the West Indies southward to Argentina and Chile in other large collections in the United states have been assembled through the courtesy of Dr.

Peters of the Museum of Comparative Zoology,W. Todd of the Carnegie Museum, and Dr. Karl P. Schmidt of the Field Museum of Natural History. I have also to thank Dr. Alden H. Miller for the use of one specimen from Chubut in the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, and Dean Amadon for certain notes on this group of birds that he had assembled.

The distribution of the forms of the New World rayador, or skimmer, Rynchops nigra , and the characters that mark the geographic races, have been matters of interest to me for a number of years, an interest heightened by recent discussions in current literature of the identity of the birds found on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and far to the south in Chile.

Miller for the use of one specimen. Canopy treatment influences growth of replacement tree species in Fraxinus nigra forests threatened by the emerald ash borer in Minnesota, USA. Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Regeneration of associated tree species is generally low in F. Natural hybridization between Populus nigra L. Hybrid offspring competes for niches along the Rhine river in the Netherlands. Smulders, M. Black poplar Populus nigra L. For restoration of floodplain woodlands, the remaining black poplar stands may act as source population.

A potential problem is that P. Complement activation in the Parkinson's disease substantia nigra : an immunocytochemical study. The long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been associated, in retrospective studies, with decreased risk for PD, suggesting that inflammation may contribute to development of this disorder. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of complement activation, a major inflammatory mechanism, in PD. Nonparametric analyses were used to evaluate differences between groups and to evaluate correlations between complement staining, numbers of melanized neurons, and the duration of PD.

Staining was also prominent on melanized neurons. C9 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in PD vs. AD specimens, but unlike iC3b, the increased C9 staining in PD and young normal specimens did not achieve statistical significance vs.

Conclusion Complement activation occurs on Lewy bodies and melanized neurons in the PD substantia nigra. Early complement activation iC3b is increased on melanized neurons in PD vs. This latter finding suggests that complement. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed.

Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study.

Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol.

In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0. Chemotaxonomic significance of the terpene composition in natural populations of Pinus nigra J.

Arnold from Serbia. The essential-oil variability in seven native populations belonging to different infraspecific taxa of Pinus nigra ssp. In the needles of trees from seven populations, 58 essential-oil components were identified. The taxonomic implications of the essential-oil profiles of the investigated taxa of this very complex species are discussed.

Species verification of Dalbergia nigra and Dalbergia spruceana samples in the wood collection of the Forest Products Laboratory. To evade endangered timber species laws, unscrupulous importers sometimes attempt to pass protected Dalbergia nigra as look-alike but unprotected, Dalbergia Spruceana.

Wood density and fluorescence properties are sometimes used to identify the species. Although these properties are useful and do not require special equipment, Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role. The resulting increase in reactive oxygen species triggers a sequence of events that leads to cell damage, activation of microglia cells and neuroinflammatory responses.

Our objective was to study whether chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, which produces oxidative stress itself, induces progressive cell death in conjunction with glial alterations in the substantia nigra. Animals were exposed to an ozone-free air stream control or to low doses of ozone for 7, 15, 30, 60, or 90 days. Each group underwent 1 spectrophotometric analysis for protein oxidation; 2 western blot testing for microglia reactivity and nuclear factor kappa B expression levels; and 3 immunohistochemistry for cytochrome c, GFAP, Iba-1, NFkB and COX Our results indicate that ozone induces an increase in protein oxidation levels, changes in activated astrocytes and microglia, and cell death.

NFkB and cytochrome c showed an increase until 30 days of exposure, while cyclooxygenase 2 in the substantia nigra increased from 7 days up to 90 days of repetitive ozone exposure. First report of Geosmithia morbida on ambrosia beetles emerged from thousand cankers-diseased Juglans nigra in Ohio. Eastern black walnut Juglans nigra is a highly-valued species for timber and nut production in the eastern United States. Thousand cankers disease TCD , caused by the interaction of the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis and the canker fungus Geosmithia morbida Tisserat et al.

Development of a reliable method for determining sex for a primitive rodent, the Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra. The mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa is a primitive species of rodent, often considered a living fossil.

The Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra is an endangered subspecies that occurs in a very restricted range in northern California. Efforts to recover this taxon have been limited by the lack of knowledge on their demography, particularly sex and age Rhabdomyosarcoma in a terrestrial tortoise Geochelone nigra in Nigeria: A case report. Full Text Available A skeletal muscle tumour rhabdomysarcoma was diagnosed in a 4-year-old captive female terrestrial tortoise Geochelone nigra weighing 7 kg presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

The tumour was located at the anterior right portion of the body and ventral to the carapace. The location of the tumour prevented the tortoise from extending its head from the body. The tumour was a sessile, smooth white mass, with a soft myxomatous consistency. The histological features that were diagnostic of rhabdomyosarcoma included a sparse population of haphazardly arranged spindle-shaped cells within a homogenous matrix anisocytosis, occasional tumour giant and binucleate cells, and some well differentiated myofibrils with cross striations within the cytoplasm.

The paucity of information on tumours in the land tortoise was the reason for this report, which appears to be the first report of rhabdomyosarcoma in the tortoise. Diversity and expression of nitrogenase genes nifH from ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine Pinus nigra. The diversity of bacterial nitrogenase genes nifH and their mRNA transcription in ectomycorrhizas of Corsican pine Pinus nigra were examined. Several different nifH sequences were detected and the bacteria actively transcribing nifH were different from those whose genes were detected through DNA-based PCR.

Putative nitrogenase amino acid sequences revealed that more than half of the nifH products were derived from methylotrophic bacteria, such as Methylocella spp. The next most frequent sequence types were similar to those from Burkholderia.

Effects of water stress on germination of Pinus nigra Arnold. Climate change, global warming and the deterioration of related environmental conditions cause an important problem for forest tree species. For this reason, it is necessary to determine the response of trees to these conditions.

The Objective of this study was to investigate the effects of water stress on seed germination of fifteen Pinus nigra Arnold. For this purpose, the water stresses between 0 and In this study, significant variations between the provenances were found. Ankara Uluhan percent 95, 08 and Isparta Tota percent 85, 41 provenances at This study has shown that the water stress reduced the germination speed, germination percentage and germination value.

Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients. Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra : dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem.

Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

The elder Sambucus spp. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of elderberry liquid extract against human pathogenic bacteria and also influenza viruses.

These properties have been mainly attributed to phenolic compounds. However, other plant defense molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides AMPs , may be present. Here, we studied peptide extracts from flowers of Sambucus nigra L.