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The following days are public holidays in Italy: Date, English Name, Local Name, Remarks In addition each city or town celebrates a public holiday on the occasion of the festival of the local patron saint: for example, Rome - 29 June (SS​. Course center: the course for musical specialization is offered in our schools in Florence and Rome. Our school in Milan offer other Music Courses, click here for​. Italy time zone and map with current time in the largest cities. Capital: Rome Current Local Time in Locations in Italy with Links for More Information (

Rome Italy Temple Dedication. March 10–12, Date: March 10–12, ; Location: Rome, Italy. The Rome Italy Temple and the surrounding area. Current local time in Italy – Rome. Get Rome's weather and area codes, time zone and DST. Explore Rome's sunrise and sunset, moonrise and moonset. The following days are public holidays in Italy: Date, English Name, Local Name, Remarks In addition each city or town celebrates a public holiday on the occasion of the festival of the local patron saint: for example, Rome - 29 June (SS​.

The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Italian: Foro Romano), is a Its final travertine paving, still visible, dates from the reign of Augustus. Excavations in the 19th century revealed one layer on top of another. Course center: the course for musical specialization is offered in our schools in Florence and Rome. Our school in Milan offer other Music Courses, click here for​. Rome Italy Temple Dedication. March 10–12, Date: March 10–12, ; Location: Rome, Italy. The Rome Italy Temple and the surrounding area.






The Roman Forumalso known by its Latin name Forum Romanum Italian : Foro Romanois a rectangular forum plaza surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnumor simply the Forum.

For centuries the Forum was the center of day-to-day life in Rome: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trialsand gladiatorial matches ; and the nucleus of commercial affairs.

Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men. The teeming heart of ancient Romeit has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, and in all history. Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum.

The Roman Kingdom 's earliest shrines and temples were located on the southeastern edge. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia 8th century BCand the Temple of Vesta 7th century BCas well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virginsall of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome. Other archaic shrines to the northwest, such as the Umbilicus Urbis and the Vulcanal Shrine of Vulcandeveloped into the Republic 's formal Comitium assembly area.

This is where the Senate —as well as Republican government itself—began. The Senate House, government offices, tribunals, temples, memorials and statues gradually cluttered the area. Italy time the archaic Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia BC.

Some years later, Julius Caesar built the Basilica Juliaalong with the new Curia Juliarefocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form, then served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political, judicial and religious pursuits in ever greater numbers.

Eventually much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the Forum Romanum to the larger and more extravagant structures Trajan's Forum and the Basilica Ulpia to the north. The reign of Constantine the Great saw the construction of rome last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius AD. This returned the political center to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire almost two centuries later. By the Imperial period, the large public buildings that crowded around the central square had reduced the open area to a rectangle of about by 50 meters.

Its long dimension was oriented northwest to southeast and extended from the foot of the Capitoline Hill to italy of the Velian Hill. The Forum's basilicas during the Imperial period—the Basilica Aemilia on the north and the Basilica Julia on the south—defined its long sides and its final form. The Forum proper italy this square, the buildings facing it and, sometimes, an additional area the Forum Adjectum extending southeast as far as the Arch of Titus.

Originally, the site of the Forum had been a marshy lake where waters from the surrounding hills drained. Excavated sequences of remains of paving show that sediment eroded from the surrounding hills was already date the level in early Republican times. As the ground around buildings rose, residents simply paved over the debris that was too much to remove. Its final travertine paving, still visible, dates from the reign of Augustus.

Excavations in the 19th century revealed one italy on top of another. The deepest level excavated was 3. Archaeological finds rome human activity at that level with the discovery of carbonized wood.

An important function of the Forum, during both Republican and Imperial times, was to serve as the culminating venue for the celebratory military processions known as Triumphs.

Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate Porta Triumphalis and circumnavigated the Palatine Hill counterclockwise before proceeding from the Velian Hill down the Via Date and into the Forum. Lavish public banquets ensued back down on the Forum. The original, low-lying, grassy wetland of the Forum was drained in the 7th century BC with the building of the Cloaca Maximaa large covered sewer system that emptied into the Tiberas more people began to settle between the two hills.

According to tradition, the Forum's beginnings are date with the alliance between Romulusthe first king of Rome controlling the Palatine Hilland his rival, Titus Tatiuswho occupied the Capitoline Hill. An alliance formed after combat had been halted by the prayers and cries of the Sabine women. Because the valley lay between the two settlements, it was the designated place for the two peoples to rome.

Since the early Forum area included pools of stagnant water, the most easily accessible area was the northern part of the valley which was designated as the Comitium. It was here at the Vulcanal that, according to the story, the two parties laid down their weapons and formed an alliance. The Forum was outside the walls of the original Sabine fortress, which was entered through the Porta Saturni.

These walls were mostly destroyed when the two hills were joined. As political speeches, civil trials, and other public affairs began to take up more and more space in the Forum, additional fora throughout the city began to emerge to expand on specific needs of the growing population.

Fora for cattle, pork, vegetables and wine specialised in their niche products and the associated deities around them.

Rome's second king, Numa Pompilius r. Later Tullus Hostilius r. He date said to have converted that date into the Curia Hostilia close to where the Senate originally met in an old Etruscan hut.

In BC Tarquinius Priscus had the area paved for the first time. During the Republican period the Comitium continued to be the central location for all judicial and political life in the city. Building projects of several consuls repaved and built onto both the Comitium and the rome central plaza that was becoming the Forum.

A long-held tradition of speaking from the elevated speakers' Rostra —originally facing north towards the Senate House to the assembled politicians and elites—put the orator's back to the people assembled in the Forum.

A tribune known as Caius Licinius consul in BC is said to have been the first to turn away from the elite towards the Forum, an act symbolically repeated two centuries later by Gaius Gracchus. This began the tradition of locus popularisin which even young nobles were expected to speak to the people from the Rostra.

When Censor in BC, Gaius Maenius provided buildings in the Forum neighborhood with balconies, which were called after him maenianain order that the spectators might better view the games put on within the temporary wooden arenas set up there. The Tribune benches were placed on the Forum Romanum, as well. First, they stood next italy the senate house; during the late Roman Republic they were placed in front of the Basilica Italy.

The earliest basilicas large, aisled halls were introduced to the Forum in BC by Marcus Porcius Catowhich began the process of "monumentalizing" the site. Nine years later, the Basilica Sempronia was dedicated on italy south side. Many of the traditions from the Comitium, such as the popular assemblies, funerals nobles and games, were transferred to the Forum as it developed.

Particularly important and unprecedented political events took place in BC when, in the midst of riots in and around the Forum, the Tribune Tiberius Gracchus was lynched there by a group of Senators. In the 80s BC, during the dictatorship of Sullamajor work was done on the Forum including the raising of the plaza level by almost a meter and the laying of permanent marble paving stones.

Aemilius Lepidus and Q. Lutatius Catulus. In 63 BC, Cicero delivered his famous speech denouncing the companions of the conspirator Catiline at the Forum in the Temple of Concordwhose spacious hall was sometimes used as a meeting place by the Senators.

After the verdict, they were led to their deaths at the Dateitaly nearby dungeon which was the only known state prison of the ancient Romans. Over time, the Comitium was lost to the ever-growing Curia and to Julius Caesar 's rearrangements before his assassination in 44 BC. After Julius Caesar's death, and the end of the subsequent Civil WarsAugustus would finish his great-uncle's work, giving the Date its final form.

This included the southeastern end of the plaza where he constructed the Temple of Divus Iulius and the Arch of Augustus there both in 29 BC. The Forum was witness to the assassination of a Roman Emperor in 69 AD: Galba had set out from the palace to meet rebels but was so feeble that he had to be carried in a litter. He was immediately met by a troop of his rival Otho 's cavalry near the Lacus Curtius in the Forum, where he was killed.

During these early Imperial times, much economic and judicial business transferred away from the Forum to larger and more extravagant structures to the north. The white marble Arch of Septimius Severus was added at the northwest end of the Forum close to the foot of the Capitoline Hill and adjacent to the old, vanishing Comitium.

It was dedicated in AD to commemorate the Parthian victories of Emperor Septimius Severus and his two sons, and is one of the most visible landmarks there date. The Emperor Diocletian italy. By his day it date become highly cluttered with honorific memorials.

He refurbished and reorganized it, building anew the Temple of Saturn, Rome of Vesta and the Curia. The reign of Constantine the Great saw the completion of the construction of the Basilica of Maxentius ADthe last significant expansion of the Forum complex. The city's estimated population fell from italy, toin A.

The populated areas contracted to the river. Strenuous efforts were made to keep the Forum and the Palatine structures intact, not without some success. In the 6th century some of the old edifices within the Forum began to be transformed into Christian churches. On 1 Augustthe Column of Phocasa Roman monumental columnwas erected before the Rostra and dedicated or rededicated in honour of the Eastern Roman Emperor Phocas. This proved to be date last monumental addition made to the Forum.

The emperor Constans who visited the city rome A. By the 8th century the whole space was surrounded by Christian churches taking the place of the abandoned and ruined temples. An anonymous 8th-century Einsiedeln Itinerary reports that the Forum was already falling apart at that time. During the Middle Ages, though the memory of the Forum Romanum persisted, its monuments were for the most part buried under debris, and its location was designated the "Campo Vaccino" or "cattle field," [25] located between the Capitoline Hill and the Colosseum.

After the 8th century the structures of the Forum were dismantled, re-arranged and used to build feudal towers and rome within the local area. In the 13th century these rearranged structures were torn down and the site became a dumping ground. This, along with the debris from the dismantled medieval buildings and ancient structures, helped contribute to the rising ground level.

The return of Pope Urban V from Avignon in led to an increased interest in ancient monuments, partly for their moral lesson and partly as a quarry for new buildings being undertaken in Rome after a long lapse. The Roman Forum was a site for many artists and architects studying in Rome to sketch during the date through the 19th century. The focus of many of these works produced by visiting Northern artists was on current state of the Roman Forum, known locally as the "Campo Vaccino", or "cow field", due rome the livestock who grazed on the largely ignored section of the city.

Claude Lorrain 's Campo Vaccino shows the extent to which the building in rome forum were buried under sediment. From about to his death inrome artist Giovanni Battista Piranesi worked on a series of etchings depicting 18th-century Rome. Renowned British artist J. Turner painted Modern Rome — Italy Vaccino infollowing his final trip to the city. The excavation by Carlo Feawho began clearing the debris from the Arch of Septimius Severus in marked the beginning of clearing the Forum.

Excavations were officially begun in by the Italian government under the Minister of Public Instruction, Dr. These state-funded excavations were led by Dr. Giacomo Boni until he died instopping briefly during World War I. In heavy rains caused structural damage to rome modern concrete covering holding the "Black Stone" marble together over the Lapis Niger in Rome.

When the Rome Italy Temple was announced in October , the news was met with awe and thanksgiving by members of the Church in Italy and thousands of others throughout the world. Like all Christians, Latter-day Saints revere Rome as one of the most historic locations in the world, a biblical city where the ancient apostles Peter and Paul preached the gospel of Jesus Christ. Construction began on the three-story, 40,square-foot building on October 23, , when Church President Thomas S.

Monson, along with Church and local community leaders, participated in the traditional groundbreaking ceremony. The Rome Temple sits on The temple exterior is constructed from granite with decorative glazing. The interior finish is of the finest material and workmanship: marble, woodwork and decorative painting. The temple will serve over 23, Church members living in Italy and in neighboring countries.

Currently there are operating temples worldwide, including 12 in Europe. The sun sets behind the Rome Italy Temple nearing completion on April 15, Photo by Jeffrey D. Allred, Deseret News. Lighting in the Rome Italy Temple. The Senate House, government offices, tribunals, temples, memorials and statues gradually cluttered the area. Over time the archaic Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia BC.

Some years later, Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia , along with the new Curia Julia , refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form, then served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political, judicial and religious pursuits in ever greater numbers.

Eventually much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the Forum Romanum to the larger and more extravagant structures Trajan's Forum and the Basilica Ulpia to the north. The reign of Constantine the Great saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius AD. This returned the political center to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire almost two centuries later.

By the Imperial period, the large public buildings that crowded around the central square had reduced the open area to a rectangle of about by 50 meters. Its long dimension was oriented northwest to southeast and extended from the foot of the Capitoline Hill to that of the Velian Hill.

The Forum's basilicas during the Imperial period—the Basilica Aemilia on the north and the Basilica Julia on the south—defined its long sides and its final form. The Forum proper included this square, the buildings facing it and, sometimes, an additional area the Forum Adjectum extending southeast as far as the Arch of Titus. Originally, the site of the Forum had been a marshy lake where waters from the surrounding hills drained.

Excavated sequences of remains of paving show that sediment eroded from the surrounding hills was already raising the level in early Republican times. As the ground around buildings rose, residents simply paved over the debris that was too much to remove. Its final travertine paving, still visible, dates from the reign of Augustus.

Excavations in the 19th century revealed one layer on top of another. The deepest level excavated was 3. Archaeological finds show human activity at that level with the discovery of carbonized wood. An important function of the Forum, during both Republican and Imperial times, was to serve as the culminating venue for the celebratory military processions known as Triumphs. Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate Porta Triumphalis and circumnavigated the Palatine Hill counterclockwise before proceeding from the Velian Hill down the Via Sacra and into the Forum.

Lavish public banquets ensued back down on the Forum. The original, low-lying, grassy wetland of the Forum was drained in the 7th century BC with the building of the Cloaca Maxima , a large covered sewer system that emptied into the Tiber , as more people began to settle between the two hills. According to tradition, the Forum's beginnings are connected with the alliance between Romulus , the first king of Rome controlling the Palatine Hill , and his rival, Titus Tatius , who occupied the Capitoline Hill.

An alliance formed after combat had been halted by the prayers and cries of the Sabine women. Because the valley lay between the two settlements, it was the designated place for the two peoples to meet. Since the early Forum area included pools of stagnant water, the most easily accessible area was the northern part of the valley which was designated as the Comitium.

It was here at the Vulcanal that, according to the story, the two parties laid down their weapons and formed an alliance. The Forum was outside the walls of the original Sabine fortress, which was entered through the Porta Saturni. These walls were mostly destroyed when the two hills were joined.

As political speeches, civil trials, and other public affairs began to take up more and more space in the Forum, additional fora throughout the city began to emerge to expand on specific needs of the growing population. Fora for cattle, pork, vegetables and wine specialised in their niche products and the associated deities around them. Rome's second king, Numa Pompilius r. Later Tullus Hostilius r. He is said to have converted that temple into the Curia Hostilia close to where the Senate originally met in an old Etruscan hut.

In BC Tarquinius Priscus had the area paved for the first time. During the Republican period the Comitium continued to be the central location for all judicial and political life in the city. Building projects of several consuls repaved and built onto both the Comitium and the adjacent central plaza that was becoming the Forum.

A long-held tradition of speaking from the elevated speakers' Rostra —originally facing north towards the Senate House to the assembled politicians and elites—put the orator's back to the people assembled in the Forum.

A tribune known as Caius Licinius consul in BC is said to have been the first to turn away from the elite towards the Forum, an act symbolically repeated two centuries later by Gaius Gracchus.

This began the tradition of locus popularis , in which even young nobles were expected to speak to the people from the Rostra. When Censor in BC, Gaius Maenius provided buildings in the Forum neighborhood with balconies, which were called after him maeniana , in order that the spectators might better view the games put on within the temporary wooden arenas set up there.

The Tribune benches were placed on the Forum Romanum, as well. First, they stood next to the senate house; during the late Roman Republic they were placed in front of the Basilica Porcia. The earliest basilicas large, aisled halls were introduced to the Forum in BC by Marcus Porcius Cato , which began the process of "monumentalizing" the site.

Nine years later, the Basilica Sempronia was dedicated on the south side. Many of the traditions from the Comitium, such as the popular assemblies, funerals nobles and games, were transferred to the Forum as it developed. Particularly important and unprecedented political events took place in BC when, in the midst of riots in and around the Forum, the Tribune Tiberius Gracchus was lynched there by a group of Senators. In the 80s BC, during the dictatorship of Sulla , major work was done on the Forum including the raising of the plaza level by almost a meter and the laying of permanent marble paving stones.

Aemilius Lepidus and Q. Lutatius Catulus. In 63 BC, Cicero delivered his famous speech denouncing the companions of the conspirator Catiline at the Forum in the Temple of Concord , whose spacious hall was sometimes used as a meeting place by the Senators. After the verdict, they were led to their deaths at the Tullianum , the nearby dungeon which was the only known state prison of the ancient Romans.

Over time, the Comitium was lost to the ever-growing Curia and to Julius Caesar 's rearrangements before his assassination in 44 BC. After Julius Caesar's death, and the end of the subsequent Civil Wars , Augustus would finish his great-uncle's work, giving the Forum its final form. This included the southeastern end of the plaza where he constructed the Temple of Divus Iulius and the Arch of Augustus there both in 29 BC. The Forum was witness to the assassination of a Roman Emperor in 69 AD: Galba had set out from the palace to meet rebels but was so feeble that he had to be carried in a litter.

He was immediately met by a troop of his rival Otho 's cavalry near the Lacus Curtius in the Forum, where he was killed. During these early Imperial times, much economic and judicial business transferred away from the Forum to larger and more extravagant structures to the north. The white marble Arch of Septimius Severus was added at the northwest end of the Forum close to the foot of the Capitoline Hill and adjacent to the old, vanishing Comitium.

It was dedicated in AD to commemorate the Parthian victories of Emperor Septimius Severus and his two sons, and is one of the most visible landmarks there today. The Emperor Diocletian r. By his day it had become highly cluttered with honorific memorials.

He refurbished and reorganized it, building anew the Temple of Saturn, Temple of Vesta and the Curia. The reign of Constantine the Great saw the completion of the construction of the Basilica of Maxentius AD , the last significant expansion of the Forum complex. The city's estimated population fell from ,—, to , in A. The populated areas contracted to the river. Strenuous efforts were made to keep the Forum and the Palatine structures intact, not without some success. In the 6th century some of the old edifices within the Forum began to be transformed into Christian churches.

On 1 August , the Column of Phocas , a Roman monumental column , was erected before the Rostra and dedicated or rededicated in honour of the Eastern Roman Emperor Phocas. This proved to be the last monumental addition made to the Forum. The emperor Constans who visited the city in A. By the 8th century the whole space was surrounded by Christian churches taking the place of the abandoned and ruined temples.

An anonymous 8th-century Einsiedeln Itinerary reports that the Forum was already falling apart at that time. During the Middle Ages, though the memory of the Forum Romanum persisted, its monuments were for the most part buried under debris, and its location was designated the "Campo Vaccino" or "cattle field," [25] located between the Capitoline Hill and the Colosseum. After the 8th century the structures of the Forum were dismantled, re-arranged and used to build feudal towers and castles within the local area.

In the 13th century these rearranged structures were torn down and the site became a dumping ground. This, along with the debris from the dismantled medieval buildings and ancient structures, helped contribute to the rising ground level. The return of Pope Urban V from Avignon in led to an increased interest in ancient monuments, partly for their moral lesson and partly as a quarry for new buildings being undertaken in Rome after a long lapse.

The Roman Forum was a site for many artists and architects studying in Rome to sketch during the 17th through the 19th century. The focus of many of these works produced by visiting Northern artists was on current state of the Roman Forum, known locally as the "Campo Vaccino", or "cow field", due to the livestock who grazed on the largely ignored section of the city.

Claude Lorrain 's Campo Vaccino shows the extent to which the building in the forum were buried under sediment. From about to his death in , the artist Giovanni Battista Piranesi worked on a series of etchings depicting 18th-century Rome. Renowned British artist J. Turner painted Modern Rome — Campo Vaccino in , following his final trip to the city. The excavation by Carlo Fea , who began clearing the debris from the Arch of Septimius Severus in marked the beginning of clearing the Forum.

Excavations were officially begun in by the Italian government under the Minister of Public Instruction, Dr. These state-funded excavations were led by Dr. Giacomo Boni until he died in , stopping briefly during World War I. In heavy rains caused structural damage to the modern concrete covering holding the "Black Stone" marble together over the Lapis Niger in Rome.

Excavations in the forum continue, with new discoveries by archeologists working in the forum since leading to questions about Rome's exact age. One of these recent discoveries includes a tufa wall near the Lapis Niger used to channel water from nearby aquifers. Around the wall, pottery remains and food scraps allowed archeologists to date the likely construction of the wall to the 8th or 9th century BC, over a century before the traditional date of Rome's founding.

The Roman Forum has been a source of inspiration for visual artists for centuries. Especially notable is Giambattista Piranesi who created —76 a set of etchings—the Vedute di Roma Views of Rome —in which the Forum figured significantly. Many of the features documented in Piranesi's views have now vanished. Turner and many others. The Temple of Saturn was one of the more significant buildings located in the Roman Forum.

Little is known about when the Temple was built, as the original temple is believed to have been burnt down by the Gauls early in the fourth century. However it is understood that it was also rebuilt by Munatius Plancus in 42 BC. Though its exact date of completion is not known, it stands as one of the oldest buildings in the Forum Romanum. The Temple stood in the forum along with four other temples.

At each temple, animal sacrifices and rituals were done in front of the religious sites. These acts were meant to provide good fortune to those entering and using the temple. Inside the Temple there were multiple vaults for the public and private ones for individuals. There were also sections of the Temple for public speaking events and feasts which often followed the sacrifices. Other fora existed in other areas of the city; remains of most of them, sometimes substantial, still exist.

There are also:. Other markets were known but remain unidentifiable due to a lack of precise information on each site's function. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archaeological site in Rome, Italy. This article is about the particular structure in the city of Rome.

For the general structure found in many Roman cities, see Forum Roman.