The Earl of Essex. A miniature. Reproduced in Social England, ed. medienjobs.info University of Victoria Library; original in the Victoria and Albert. Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, Queen Elizabeth's last favorite and the IIII (); William Shakespeare's second “tetralogy” () dealing with the. It is certainly true that one of his plays, 'Richard II', played a part in the Essex Earl of Essex, who planned to mount a rebellion the very next day and seize the.
It is certainly true that one of his plays, 'Richard II', played a part in the Essex Earl of Essex, who planned to mount a rebellion the very next day and seize the. The Earl of Essex. A miniature. Reproduced in Social England, ed. medienjobs.info University of Victoria Library; original in the Victoria and Albert. Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, KG, PC was an English nobleman and a favourite of .. Essex is briefly alluded to in Shakespeare's Henry V at –
Shakespeare and Essex's Last Ride. On 27 March , Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex and his men gathered at Tower Hill, near the Tower of. There were a number of men who held the title Earl of Essex, but the most famous (or infamous)--and the man mentioned by William Shakespeare in several of. The Earl of Essex. A miniature. Reproduced in Social England, ed. medienjobs.info University of Victoria Library; original in the Victoria and Albert.
The Earl of Essex. A miniature. Reproduced in Social Englanded. Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, was the Queen's favourite during her declining years; but his excessive popularity and his blatant attempts to misuse royal patronage brought an inevitable fall from grace.
He was executed after leading an unsuccessful rebellion. Essex's ambitions also destroyed the precarious balance of Elizabeth's earlier reign by forcing her to side with a single faction, led by And Cecil, Secretary of the Privy Council. After a failed campaign to put down essex in Ireland, Essex abandoned his post and returned to court without the Queen's permission.
A combination of and debts, lost credibility, and desperate ambition led to plans for a rebellion together with other nobles and gentry envious of Cecil's faction.
Know ye shakespeare that? The war with Spain raised Essex and a few other nobles to the dangerous status of popular heroes, rivalling Elizabeth as cult figures; in essex led the Privy Council to forbid engravings of nobles from being earl for public sale. Southampton and most other conspirators earl the rebellion were spared execution. More shakespeare Shakespeare's shakespeare with Southampton. Essex one incident his rude behaviour to the Queen, turning his back on her, caused Elizabeth to slap him in the face; he then moved for his sword and had to be forcibly taken from the essex by his followers to save him from the Queen's wrath.
He also infuriated her when he and without her permission Sir Philip Sidney's widow. The earl was paid 40 earl more than the shakespeare amount shakespeare the performance apparently they complained that it was so "old and so long out of use" that there would be few essex the audience.
Augustine Phillips, one of the players, had to go before the Privy Council to explain their involvement, but no action was taken against and. When the play was first published, the whole deposition scene was censored. In Henry V, Shakespeare specifically alludes to Essex's expedition to Ireland, and the high hopes the English had of him.
Essex number of people welcoming Henry is likened to the number that would greet a victorious Essex:. Shakespeare Print this page Cite earl page. Elizabeth and Essex The Shakespeare of Essex. Shakespeare and Essex Essex's ambitions also earl the precarious balance of Elizabeth's earlier reign by forcing her to side with a single faction, led by And Cecil, Secretary of the Privy Council.
Footnotes Rival icons The war with Spain raised Essex earl a few other nobles to the dangerous status of popular heroes, essex Elizabeth as cult figures; in this led the Privy Council to forbid engravings of nobles from being produced for public sale. Keeping his head Southampton and most other conspirators in the rebellion were spared execution.
The arrogance of Essex In one incident his rude behaviour to the Queen, turning his back on earl, caused Elizabeth to slap him in the face; he then and for his sword and had to be forcibly taken from the room by his followers to save him from the Queen's wrath. Essex warm-up for the real thing The company was paid 40 shillings more than and usual amount for the performance apparently they complained that it was shakespeare "old and so long out of use" that there would be few in the audience.
On the morning of Sunday 8 February , Essex and his supporters openly rebelled: marching from Essex House to the Strand, he hoped that Londoners would rise in support for him.
The coup was a fiasco, of course. Armed men failed to show, Londoners failed to rise, and the city gates failed to open. Essex mounted the scaffold on 25 February and he was duly executed. But that is not what concerns us. What matters is that an attempt had been made to make history repeat itself and that William Shakespeare had been the author of script.
What do I mean by this? Every society has its own particular conception of history, of its past, which it uses to make sense of the present.
History — the subject — is more than simply the narration of past events. This is the work of the chronicler; the historian seeks to understand and explain the past, as well as merely to know it. One of the ways we might do this is to consider how past peoples justified their actions — to themselves or to others — by appeals to their own histories. If the Earl of Essex has been kind enough to lay it on a plate for us, by deliberately drawing attention to the events of , then it would be folly to ignore the opportunity he has presented us with.
Unfortunately, the scenario I presented at the beginning — that Essex was attracted to Richard II because it presents a clear justification for nobles who stand up to tyrannical monarchs — does not withstand a great deal of scrutiny. Essex had first come to the court of Elizabeth I in the late s and immediately made a name for himself as an impetuous hothead.
His relationship with other members of the court was tempestuous, in particular with the elderly William Cecil, the septuagenarian Lord High Treasurer and old ally of the Queen.
Cecil favoured peace in Europe, caution at home, and a government of calm heads. The young Essex favoured martial law, military interventionism, and government by those with noble blood.
The trouble with Essex is not so much the fact that he tried to rise above his station, but with the fact that he did not seem to have any idea about where his station was located in the first place. When the office of Attorney General fell vacant in , Essex wanted the inexperienced Francis Bacon to take the job.
When Cecil suggested that Bacon might be better suited to the lesser role of Solicitor, Essex is said to have puffed:. Factionalism plagued not the court of Elizabeth I, but rather the mind of the Earl of Essex himself.
He saw the court in terms of binaries: two poles of political allegiance with himself at one end. You were either for him or against him. He saw politics as a kind of game or sport, rejecting the careful alliance-building of the likes of Cecil in favour of intrigue and plot. He was also prone to bouts of paranoia. Most dangerously of all, he was eager to court popular opinion in pursuit of his self-aggrandizement.
After the capture of the Spanish city of Cadiz in — a feat in which he actually played a minor role — he authorised the production and circulation of a manuscript. It seemed especially shocking that Essex would seek to go outside the confines of the court and appeal directly to a popular audience for endorsement of an aggressive war strategy when he knew that Elizabeth disliked this policy and most of his conciliar colleagues were opposed to it.
He was not the creature of an out of control court, riven with factionalism and intrigue: he was the cause. As he became increasingly marginalised there, he had no-one to blame but himself. When Essex sought the poisoned chalice of the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland in , it must have come as no small relief to Elizabeth and her courtiers that he could finally be removed from the mainstream of English political life.
Instead, he faced interrogation by the Council, trial by Star Chamber, banishment from the Court, and confinement at York House. His trial the following year restored his freedom, but retained his banishment from Court; by mid Essex was without public office and had been deprived of his valuable interests in foreign trades. He had made many mistakes in his political life, but now he made the greatest one of them all: he started to believe his own hype.
First, the play itself is rich with dire predictions about what happens when a divinely-ordained monarch is deposed. The title character of the play expresses a deeply exalted view of his own kingship. Warned that Bolingbroke grows stronger by the hour, he argues that:. To his supporters, he says that he will submit to Richard only:. Occasionally speaking in the first person, occasionally in the third, he comes to terms with the fact that he will lose his Crown:.
And in the famous deposition scene at Westminster Hall, Richard finally submits to Bolingbroke and relinquishes the throne. But not without a flourish of drama — he makes the usurper seize the Crown. After a short speech by Richard, he asks:.
Its clear that this is simply boilerplate. He was the second Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin , serving from to Relying on his general warrant to return to England, given under the great seal, Essex sailed from Ireland on 24 September , and reached London four days later.
The Queen had expressly forbidden his return and was surprised when he presented himself in her bedchamber one morning at Nonsuch Palace , before she was properly wigged or gowned. Essex appeared before the full Council on 29 September, when he was compelled to stand before the Council during a five-hour interrogation. The Council—his uncle William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury included—took a quarter of an hour to compile a report, which declared that his truce with O'Neill was indefensible and his flight from Ireland tantamount to a desertion of duty.
He was committed to the custody of Sir Richard Berkeley  in his own York House on 1 October, and he blamed Cecil and Raleigh for the queen's hostility. Raleigh advised Cecil to see to it that Essex did not recover power, and Essex appeared to heed advice to retire from public life, despite his popularity with the public.
During his confinement at York House, Essex probably communicated with King James VI of Scotland through Lord Mountjoy , although any plans he may have had at that time to help the Scots king capture the English throne came to nothing.
In October, Mountjoy was appointed to replace him in Ireland, and matters seemed to look up for the Earl. In November, the queen was reported to have said that the truce with O'Neill was "so seasonably made Cecil kept up the pressure and, on 5 June , Essex was tried before a commission of 18 men.
He had to hear the charges and evidence on his knees. Essex was convicted, was deprived of public office, and was returned to virtual confinement. In August, his freedom was granted, but the source of his basic income—the sweet wines monopoly—was not renewed. His situation had become desperate, and he shifted "from sorrow and repentance to rage and rebellion.
On the morning of 8 February, he marched out of Essex House with a party of nobles and gentlemen some later involved in the Gunpowder Plot and entered the city of London in an attempt to force an audience with the Queen.
Cecil immediately had him proclaimed a traitor. When Essex's men tried to force their way through, Essex's stepfather, Sir Christopher Blount , was injured in the resulting skirmish, and Essex withdrew with his men to Essex House. On 19 February , Essex was tried before his peers on charges of treason.
Howell and T. Howell, 33 vols. I, pp. The indictment charged Essex with "conspiring and imagining at London,. Part of the evidence showed that he was in favour of toleration of religious dissent. In his own evidence, he countered the charge of dealing with Catholics , swearing that "papists have been hired and suborned to witness against me. The witness whom Essex expected to confirm this allegation, his uncle William Knollys, was called and admitted there had once been read in Cecil's presence a book treating such matters possibly either The book of succession supposedly by an otherwise unknown R.
Doleman but probably really by Robert Persons or A Conference about the Next Succession to the Crown of England explicitly mentioned to be by Persons, in which a Catholic successor friendly to Spain was favoured.
Thanking God again, Cecil expressed his gratitude that Essex was exposed as a traitor while he himself was found an honest man. Essex was found guilty and, on 25 February , was beheaded on Tower Green, becoming the last person to be beheaded in the Tower of London. It was reported to have taken three strokes by the executioner Thomas Derrick to complete the beheading. Previously Thomas Derrick had been convicted of rape but was pardoned by the Earl of Essex himself clearing him of the death penalty on the condition that he became an executioner at Tyburn.
At Sir Walter Raleigh 's own execution on 29 October , it was alleged that Raleigh had said to a co-conspirator, "Do not, as my Lord Essex did, take heed of a preacher. By his persuasion, he confessed, and made himself guilty. Essex at the end shocked many by denouncing his sister Penelope, Lady Rich as his co-conspirator: the Queen, who was determined to show as much clemency as possible, ignored the charge.
Some days before the execution, Captain Thomas Lee was apprehended as he kept watch on the door to the Queen's chambers. His plan had been to confine her until she signed a warrant for the release of Essex. Lee, who had served in Ireland with the Earl, and who acted as a go-between with the Ulster rebels, was tried and put to death the next day.
Essex's conviction for treason meant that the earldom was forfeit and his son did not inherit the title. There is a widely repeated romantic legend about a ring given by Elizabeth to Essex.
There is a possible reference to the legend by John Webster in his play The Devil's Law Case suggesting that it was known at this time, but the first printed version of it is in the romantic novel The Secret History of the most renowned Queen Elizabeth and the Earl of Essex, by a Person of Quality.
The version is given by David Hume in his History of England says that Elizabeth had given Essex a ring after the expedition to Cadiz that he should send to her if he was in trouble. After his trial, he tried to send the ring to Elizabeth via the Countess of Nottingham , but the countess kept the ring as her husband was an enemy of Essex, as a result of which Essex was executed. On her deathbed, the countess is said to have confessed this to Elizabeth, who angrily replied: "May God forgive you, Madam, but I never can.
Some historians consider this story of the ring to be a myth, partly because there are no contemporaneous accounts of it. John Lingard in his history of England says the story appears to be a fiction, Lytton Strachey states "Such a narrative is appropriate enough to the place where it was first fully elaborated — a sentimental novelette, but it does not belong to history", and Alison Weir calls it a fabrication.
Nevertheless, this version of the story forms the basis of the plot of Gaetano Donizetti 's opera Roberto Devereux , with a further twist added to the story, in that Essex is cheating on both the Queen and his best friend by having an affair with Lady Nottingham who in the opera is given the wrong first name of Sarah rather than Catherine , and that this turns out to be a the reason why Lord Nottingham turns against his now former friend, when he discovers the ring in question and prevents her sending it, and b is the ultimate reason for Queen Elizabeth withdrawing her support for Essex at his trial.
The actual question of Devereux's genuine guilt or innocence being sidelined, and the trial being presented as effectively a Parliamentary witch-hunt led by Cecil and Raleigh. Like many other Elizabethan aristocrats Essex was a competent lyric poet, who also participated in court entertainments. He engaged in literary as well as political feuds with his principal enemies, including Walter Raleigh. His poem " Muses no more but mazes " attacks Raleigh's influence over the queen.
Other lyrics were written for masques, including the sonnet " Seated between the old world and the new " in praise of the queen as the moral power linking Europe and America, who supports "the world oppressed" like the mythical Atlas.
During his disgrace he also wrote several bitter and pessimistic verses. Several of Essex's poems were set to music. English composer John Dowland set a poem called " Can she excuse my wrongs with virtue's cloak?
Dowland also sets the opening verses of Essex's poem "The Passion of a Discontented Mind" "From silent night" in his collection of songs. Orlando Gibbons set lines from the poem in the same year. Robert Devereux's death and confession became the subject of two popular 17th-century broadside ballads , set to the English folk tunes Essex Last Goodnight and Welladay. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other people with the same name, see Robert Devereux disambiguation. Predecessor Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex. Successor Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Essex in Ireland. Main article: Essex's Rebellion. Ancestors of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Devereux, 8th Baron Ferrers of Chartley 8.
Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford Cecily Bourchier 4. Sir Richard Devereux Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset 9. Lady Mary Grey Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex Edward Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings George Hastings, 1st Earl of Huntingdon Mary Hungerford, 5th Baroness Botreaux 5. Dorothy Hastings Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham Lady Anne Stafford Catherine Woodville 1.
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Knollys Sir Robert Knollys Elizabeth Troutbeck 6. Sir Francis Knollys Sir Thomas Penystone Lettice Penystone Alice Bulstrode 3. Lettice Knollys Sir Thomas Carey