Menopausia y sexualidad

Cambios en la respuesta sexual

Event by Futuro En Femenino on Tuesday, February 10 Ocho millones de españolas tienen 50 años o más, edad media de la menopausia. En esta época se debe vigilar la fecundidad porque puede. Conclusión: Mayoritariamente la menopausia ha generado un impacto negativo en la sexualidad de las mujeres que han participado en el estudio.

Una mujer sabe que tiene la menopausia cuando ya no tiene la regla y la anorgasmia, uno de los trastornos sexuales más raros en hombres. Cambios fisiológicos y psicosexules a partir de la menopausia. SEXUALIDAD Y MENOPAUSIA Francisco Cabello Santamaría Instituto. Se reitera la importancia que tiene el ginecólogo en el diagnóstico de las disfunciones sexuales secundarias a la menopausia y del hipoestrogenismo e.

Cambios fisiológicos y psicosexules a partir de la menopausia. SEXUALIDAD Y MENOPAUSIA Francisco Cabello Santamaría Instituto. Se reitera la importancia que tiene el ginecólogo en el diagnóstico de las disfunciones sexuales secundarias a la menopausia y del hipoestrogenismo e. Abstract. VARGAS-FANDINO, Ángela Johanna et al. Perception of menopause and sexuality among older women in two university hospitals in Bogota.






E-mail: melodysanchez gmail. Methodology: A descriptive and retrospective study was prepared with menopausal women, agec from 45 to Results: The measurements more affected before menopause were sexual desire, vaginal lubrication an sexual satisfaction.

Conclusion: Mainly menopause has had a negative impact on the sexuality of the women studied. Nursin professionals should be aware and deal with this sexualidad from the scope of their competences.

Un The menopause is a turning point for many women due to it marks the end of their reproductive years but not of their sexuality, and this influences the quality of life and so is an important element of their life and health 1,2. In recent decades the interest in analyzing how women live their sexuality during climacterium has increased, largely due to the information from studies carried out on female population, which shown a prevalence of sexual dysfunction between 25 to 43 per cent in middle aged women 3,4.

The research that connected disturbances on sexual life with menopause was first conducted by Dr. Hallstrom in and showed the existence of a decrease in sexual desire, sexual desire and the frequency of intercourse for women. Years later, in Rosen et al. Nowadays it has been contemplated that the menopausia, psychological and social changes that can appear at this point are responsible for the possible disorders of sexual function 5,6.

The progressive increase in life expectancy in our country has caused that for an important sexualidad of years women remain in climacteric stage. Moreover, menopausia incorporation of woman into the job market, the improvement of educational, public health and environmental conditions, the scientific and technological development and the sexualidad changes which have taken place in recent decades here, have caused significant changes in women, their thinking, menopausia of life and perception of sexuality 4,7.

Despite that, carelessness of many menopausal women about the sexual symptoms they have drives to a weak social pressure into the public health for new solutions of these issues.

Hence the importance for the professional nurse to alert, to detect and to promote ways of life that lessen the incidence rate of sexual female dysfunction by an appropriate valuation of the sexuality pattern through the daily work. As exclusion criteria we set women with surgical menopause, physical or psychic disabilities, gynecological diseases which affect the sexual function or those who consumed medicines that affect sexuality antidepressants, benzodiazepines, fenotiazinas, beta blokers and also women who did not consent to participate in the research.

Data were collected through the standard questionnaire IFSF, which was first developed by Rosen and validated in Spanish by Blumel et al 8. IFSF consists of 19 questions grouped sexualidad six domains: desire, arouse, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. Each question has 5 or 6 answer alternatives, with an appraisal on a scale from 0 to 5 points. The scoring of each domain is multiplied by a prescribed factor and the final result is the sum of these quantities.

An enlargement of IFSF was made by adding 19 questions of our own designed in order to get the planned aims of this research. The questions of IFSF and some of the enlargement assess the answers before and after menopause so menopausia can evaluate the impact produced with its appearance.

The extended questionnaire was validated in a first step. The dimensions finally used were: desire and arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual satisfaction, pain, self-perception of body image, importance of sexuality for women, frequency in emotional-sexual relationships, causes that women attributed to their sexual difficulties and positive aspects that menopause brings.

We menopausia not get a real random sample since we lacked a proper sampling frame so the results cannot be generalized statistically to the whole population. The authors are aware of the sensitive subject of this research and the fact that it is only based on anonymous questionnaires, so biases and other weaknesses are possible. Obtained data were stored in a spreadsheet Microsoft Excel For analysis we used R software, version 3. We utilized both descriptive counts, percentages, etc.

Initially we handed over questionnaires to women ruling the inclusion criteria, of which 34 refused to sexualidad. Thereupon questionnaires were filled, of which 88 fully completed. The lack of response in them was very small less than 0. The average age of those polled was The average time without menstruation was 4. According to IFSF rules, the higher score, the better sexuality. After menopause the average scores of the six domains have decreased. The overall average also decreased in more than 7 points after menopause.

The domains that have been more disrupted were lubrication, pain and sexual satisfaction. We must take into account that mean values lower than Before menopause there were 18 women Of those women with an IFSF value higher than Only one woman 6.

The first number corresponds to menopausia value before menopause and the second one after. All the values are sexualidad and significantly different from zero so these variables are positively correlated. It highlights the correlation between lubrication and pain which goes to double.

We used the Stuart-Maxwell test to assess if the frequency with those polled engaged affective-sexual relationships had changed with menopause. In Table III we can see the percentages of the answers before and after menopause.

Furthermore we have also found that The McNemar test menopausia used to assess whether the relevance that woman gives to sexuality changes with the menopause. In Figure 1 we can observe this change. We must point out that our interest was not estimate the percentage menopausia women for whom sexuality was important before the menopause and after, but those who had changed their mind with the menopause hence these values capture the impact that menopause caused in the assessment they give to sexuality.

Of those women that thought about sexuality as a relevant aspect of life, before menopause This test shows that menopause has produced a significant impact on that aspect.

Of all women without unpleasant sensations in their sexual relations before menopause, This group mentioned as causes lack of lubrication, desire and sexual desire, as well as lack of satisfaction. Causes of the difficulties in the sexual relations before menopause. Figure 2 shows the percentages of women which attribute their difficulties in sexual relations to the different reasons we have pointed out.

The most mentioned sexualidad was physical alterations and the second one was other causes, among them economic and family difficulties and issues with their partner sexuality. Currently sexuality is an important cornerstone in women's quality of life and it interrelates with physical, psychological and social welfare 6. The negative changes involved in the female sexual function before menopause can generate frustration and provoke maladjustment and consequently low self-esteem or other issues.

In our study we have not found unexpected data, but with the obtained results we claim that female sexuality suffer changes as a consequence of climacterium and other kind of factors. In total, This percentage is higher than the obtained by Monterrosa et al. In other research menopausia by Castelo et al. We must point out that this last result is not comparable with ours, since age groups are menopausia. Many women not only link sexuality and genitalia but also attach enough importance to a sexuality based on practices which involved affectivity and it is clear that they would like to increase this kind of affective relationships.

The perception that woman has about her physical appearance is certainly a relevant factor when assessing her sexual function. Woman gives importance to her figure and the changes befallen as a result of climacterium and age may cause a serious decrease in self-esteem and confidence which impacted negatively in her sexuality. In our study, the reasons pointed out as causes of difficulties in sexual relations by women sexualidad to agree with those indicated in the research of Yanes Calderon y Chio Naranjo 6 : dissatisfaction with body changes, issues in the partnership, and lack of privacy.

While we were carrying out our study we realized that empathy, communications skills and common sense were essential in order to facilitate the effective participation in a research about sexuality. Vaginal lubrication, sexual satisfaction and pain in sexual intercourse are the IFSF domains which have been mostly modified. We have also found some positive aspects: a small but important percentage of women before menopause achieved to be aware of the importance of health care, even some of them improved their social lives.

Moreover, Although menopause seems to cause a mostly negative impact in the sexuality of the women we have studied, we think that there are several factors not considered in our study as the socioeconomic status, the health of the partner, the family situation and so sexualidad which could have a relevant importance in the sexuality of women before menopause and we should take into account in a future research. Finally, we are convinced that sexualidad should be very appropriate that professional nurse develop prevention techniques through educational programs and they participate in therapeutic decision-making for fighting against the sexual issues that happens in this stage of woman life, always keeping in mind the importance of assessing that pattern in an intimate and respectful environment.

We would like to thank M. Aurora Olea for advising this study and the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments. Trastornos sexuales en la menopausia. Clase de residentes Rossella Nappi E, Lachowsky M. Menopause and sexuality: Prevalence of symptoms and impact on quality of life. Maturitas Internet. Yabur Tarrazzi J. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en la mujer venezolana durante la perimenopausia y la posmenopausia.

Caracas: Ateproca Internet. YaburJ Matronas Prof. Rev Cubana Med Gen Integr. Rev Horiz Med. Disponible en: www. J Sex Marital Ther. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria Internet. Crawley M. The R-Book. Servicio de publicaciones UEX.

The most mentioned aspect was physical alterations and the second one was other causes, among them economic and family difficulties and issues with their partner sexuality. Currently sexuality is an important cornerstone in women's quality of life and it interrelates with physical, psychological and social welfare 6. The negative changes involved in the female sexual function before menopause can generate frustration and provoke maladjustment and consequently low self-esteem or other issues.

In our study we have not found unexpected data, but with the obtained results we claim that female sexuality suffer changes as a consequence of climacterium and other kind of factors. In total, This percentage is higher than the obtained by Monterrosa et al. In other research conducted by Castelo et al. We must point out that this last result is not comparable with ours, since age groups are different. Many women not only link sexuality and genitalia but also attach enough importance to a sexuality based on practices which involved affectivity and it is clear that they would like to increase this kind of affective relationships.

The perception that woman has about her physical appearance is certainly a relevant factor when assessing her sexual function. Woman gives importance to her figure and the changes befallen as a result of climacterium and age may cause a serious decrease in self-esteem and confidence which impacted negatively in her sexuality. In our study, the reasons pointed out as causes of difficulties in sexual relations by women seem to agree with those indicated in the research of Yanes Calderon y Chio Naranjo 6 : dissatisfaction with body changes, issues in the partnership, and lack of privacy.

While we were carrying out our study we realized that empathy, communications skills and common sense were essential in order to facilitate the effective participation in a research about sexuality. Vaginal lubrication, sexual satisfaction and pain in sexual intercourse are the IFSF domains which have been mostly modified.

We have also found some positive aspects: a small but important percentage of women before menopause achieved to be aware of the importance of health care, even some of them improved their social lives. Moreover, Although menopause seems to cause a mostly negative impact in the sexuality of the women we have studied, we think that there are several factors not considered in our study as the socioeconomic status, the health of the partner, the family situation and so on which could have a relevant importance in the sexuality of women before menopause and we should take into account in a future research.

Finally, we are convinced that it should be very appropriate that professional nurse develop prevention techniques through educational programs and they participate in therapeutic decision-making for fighting against the sexual issues that happens in this stage of woman life, always keeping in mind the importance of assessing that pattern in an intimate and respectful environment. We would like to thank M. Aurora Olea for advising this study and the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments.

Trastornos sexuales en la menopausia. Clase de residentes Rossella Nappi E, Lachowsky M. Menopause and sexuality: Prevalence of symptoms and impact on quality of life. Maturitas Internet. Yabur Tarrazzi J. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en la mujer venezolana durante la perimenopausia y la posmenopausia. Caracas: Ateproca Internet.

YaburJ Matronas Prof. Rev Cubana Med Gen Integr. Rev Horiz Med. Disponible en: www. J Sex Marital Ther. R Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria Internet. Crawley M. The R-Book. Servicio de publicaciones UEX. Sheskin, D. Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures.

Iatreia Internet. Servicios Personalizados Revista. Introduction The menopause is a turning point for many women due to it marks the end of their reproductive years but not of their sexuality, and this influences the quality of life and so is an important element of their life and health 1,2. Methods Design of the research We conducted a descriptive and retrospective study. Data source Data were collected through the standard questionnaire IFSF, which was first developed by Rosen and validated in Spanish by Blumel et al 8.

Limitations We did not get a real random sample since we lacked a proper sampling frame so the results cannot be generalized statistically to the whole population.

Statistical analysis Obtained data were stored in a spreadsheet Microsoft Excel Results Sample description Initially we handed over questionnaires to women ruling the inclusion criteria, of which 34 refused to participate. Frequency of affective-sexual relationships We used the Stuart-Maxwell test to assess if the frequency with those polled engaged affective-sexual relationships had changed with menopause.

Relevance of sexuality The McNemar test was used to assess whether the relevance that woman gives to sexuality changes with the menopause. Causes of the difficulties in the sexual relations before menopause Figure 2 shows the percentages of women which attribute their difficulties in sexual relations to the different reasons we have pointed out.

Discussion Currently sexuality is an important cornerstone in women's quality of life and it interrelates with physical, psychological and social welfare 6. Conclusions While we were carrying out our study we realized that empathy, communications skills and common sense were essential in order to facilitate the effective participation in a research about sexuality.

Adnowlegements We would like to thank M. The sample was structured using sampling based on convenience and size, defined by means of the information saturation criterion. Information was collected using the in-depth interview technique, and the data were analysed using a content analysis. Results: Five categories emerged: "Perception of menopause," "Menopause-induced changes," "Changes in sexual life after menopause," "Sexuality in menopause," and "Medical support in dealing with menopause".

Conclusions: Menopause brings with it new meanings for sexuality and the start of a new form of building the relationship between the couple. Women need the support of theirs partners, families and the healthcare staff. Keywords : Menopause; sexuality; experiences; women; qualitative research. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.