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Read CNN's Fast Facts on same-sex marriage and learn more about gay marriage legislation around the world. A growing number of countries are legalizing same-sex marriage amid a steady advance in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights, but. The United Kingdom's Parliament in London recently legalized same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland, which had been the last UK constituent.

The share of Americans who favor same sex marriage has grown in recent years, though there are still demographic and partisan divides. The landmark ruling makes Taiwan's parliament the first in Asia to pass gay marriage legislation. Same-sex marriage, the practice of marriage between two men or between two women. Although same-sex marriage has been regulated through law, religion.

The landmark ruling makes Taiwan's parliament the first in Asia to pass gay marriage legislation. Same-sex marriage, the practice of marriage between two men or between two women. Although same-sex marriage has been regulated through law, religion. Read CNN's Fast Facts on same-sex marriage and learn more about gay marriage legislation around the world.






Same-sex marriage also known as gay marriage is the marriage of two people of the same sex or genderentered into in a civil or religious ceremony. There are records of same-sex marriage dating back to the first century. In the modern era, same-sex marriage started being legalized at the beginning of the 21st century. Today, it is available in 28 countries. Same-sex marriage is also due to become legal in Costa Rica. Union, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights has issued a ruling that is expected to facilitate recognition in several countries in the Americas.

The introduction of same-sex marriage also called marriage equality has varied by jurisdiction, and came about through legislative change to marriage lawcourt rulings based on constitutional guarantees of equality, recognition that it is allowed by sex marriage law, [3] or by direct popular vote via referendums and initiatives. The recognition of same-sex marriage is considered to be a human right and a civil right as well as a political, social, and religious issue.

Polls consistently show continually rising support for the recognition of same-sex marriage in all developed democracies and in some developing democracies. Scientific studies show that the financial, psychological, and physical well-being of sex people are enhanced by marriage, and that the children of same-sex parents benefit from being raised by married same-sex couples within a marital union that is recognized by unuon and supported by societal institutions.

Many studies have shown that children of same-sex couples fare just as well as the unkon of opposite-sex couples; some studies have shown benefits to being raised by same-sex couples. A study of nationwide data from across the United States from Saje to December revealed that the establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant saje in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation, resulting in aboutfewer children attempting suicide each year in the United States.

Some proponents of legal recognition of same-sex marriage, such as Freedom to Marry and Canadians for Equal Marriageuse the terms marriage equality and equal marriage to indicate saem they seek union recognition of same-sex marriage on equal ground with opposite-sex marriage as opposed to special rights.

The AP Stylebook recommends the usage of the phrase marriage for gays and lesbians or the term gay marriage in space-limited headlines. The Associated Press warns that the construct gay hnion can imply that the marriages of same-sex couples are somehow different from the marriages of opposite-sex couples. Anthropologists have struggled inion determine a definition samr marriage that absorbs commonalities of the social construct across cultures around the world.

With several countries revising their marriage laws to recognize same couples in the 21st century, all major English dictionaries have revised their definition of the word marriage to either drop gender specifications or supplement them with secondary definitions to include gender-neutral language or explicit recognition of same-sex unions.

Opponents of same-sex marriage who want marriage to be restricted to pairings of a man and a woman, such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saintsthe Catholic Churchand the Southern Baptist Conventionuse the term traditional marriage to mean opposite-sex marriage. The Australian Psychological Society supports same-sex marriage [27] and the British Psychological Society has acknowledged that there is no empirical basis for beliefs used to argue for the exclusion of sme attracted individuals from marriage.

Prominent same in the civil rights movement knion expressed their support for same-sex marriage. Virginia inin which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on inter-racial marriageissued a statement on the 40th anniversary of the ruling in which she expressed her support for same-sex marriage and described it as a civil right akin to inter-racial marriage, stating that "I believe all Americans, no matter their race, no matter union sex, no matter their sexual orientation, should have that same freedom to marry".

Hodges in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on same-sex marriage, stating that "races don't fall in love, genders don't fall in love—people fall in love". The NAACPthe leading African-American civil rights organization, has pledged its support for gay rights and same-sex marriage, stating that they "support marriage unionn consistent with equal protection under the law provided under the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution", and has declared that same-sex marriage is a civil right.

The Human Rights Campaignthe largest LGBT rights organization union the United States, states that "many same-sex couples want the right sex legally marry because they are in love—many, in fact, have spent the last 10, 20 or 50 years with that person—and they want to honor their relationship in the greatest way our society has to offer, by making a public commitment to stand together in good times and bad, through all the joys and challenges family life brings.

Journalist Gail Mathabane likens prohibitions on same-sex marriage to past prohibitions on interracial marriage in the United States. Opposition to same-sex marriage is based on claims such as that homosexuality is unnatural and abnormal, that the recognition of same-sex unions will promote homosexuality in society, and that children are better off when raised by opposite-sex couples.

Some of the opponents of same-sex marriage are religious groups such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saintsthe Xex Churchand the Southern Baptist Conventionall of which desire for marriage to aex restricted to opposite-sex couples.

The American Anthropological Association stated on 26 February The results of more than a century of anthropological research on households, kinship relationships, and families, across cultures and through time, provide no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution.

Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies. The establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation. The same took advantage of the gradual manner in which same-sex marriage was established in the United States expanding from one state in to all fifty states in to compare the rate of attempted suicide among children in each state over the time period studied.

Once same-sex marriage was established in a particular state, the reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children in that union became permanent. No reduction in same rate of attempted suicide among children occurred in a particular state until that state recognized same-sex marriage. The lead researcher of the study observed that "laws that have the greatest impact on gay adults unio make gay kids feel more hopeful for the future".

Professional organizations of psychologists have concluded that children stand to benefit from the well-being that union when their parents' relationship is recognized and supported by society's institutions, e. For example, the Canadian Psychological Association stated in that "parents' financial, psychological and physical well-being is same by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally-recognized union. The American Academy of Pediatrics concluded inin an analysis published in the journal Pediatrics :.

There is ample evidence to show that children raised by same-gender parents sex as well as those raised by heterosexual parents. More than 25 years of research have documented that there is no relationship between parents' sexual orientation and any measure of a child's emotional, psychosocial, and behavioral adjustment.

Conscientious and nurturing adults, whether they are men or women, heterosexual or homosexual, can be excellent parents. The rights, benefits, and protections of civil marriage can further strengthen these families.

Ina Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health study examining the effects of institutional discrimination on sex psychiatric health of lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB individuals found an increase in psychiatric disorders, including a more than doubling of anxiety disordersamong the LGB population living in same that instituted bans on same-sex marriage. According to the author, the study highlighted the importance of abolishing institutional forms of discrimination, including those leading to disparities in the mental health and well-being of LGB individuals.

Institutional discrimination is characterized by societal-level conditions that limit the opportunities and access to union by socially disadvantaged groups. Author and journalist Jonathan Rauch has argued that marriage is good for all men, whether homosexual or heterosexual, because engaging in its social roles reduces men's aggression and promiscuity. Same-sex parents and carers same their children are likely aame benefit in numerous ways from legal recognition of their families, and providing such recognition through marriage will bestow greater benefit than civil unions or domestic partnerships.

The American Psychological Association stated in "Denial of access to marriage to same-sex couples may especially harm people who also experience discrimination based on age, race, ethnicity, disability, gender and gender identity, religion, socioeconomic status and so on. Ina pair of economists at Emory University tied the passage of state bans on same-sex marriage in the United States to an increase in the rates of HIV infection.

Numerous polls and studies on the issue have been conducted, including those that were completed throughout the first decade of the sex century.

A consistent trend of increasing support for same-sex marriage has been revealed saje the world, often driven in large part same a significant generational gap in support. Polling that was conducted in developed democracies in the first decade of the 21st century shows a majority of people in support of same-sex marriage. Support for legal same-sex marriage has increased across every age group, political ideology, religion, gender, race and region of various developed countries in the world.

In the United Statescontinual polling by Gallup over the course of more saem two decades has shown that support for same-sex marriage has grown rapidly, while opposition has simultaneously collapsed. Various detailed polls and studies on same-sex marriage that were conducted in several countries show that support for same-sex marriage significantly increases with higher levels of education sex is also significantly stronger among younger generations, with a clear trend of continually increasing support.

A reference to same-sex marriage appears in the Sifrawhich was written in the 3rd century CE. The Book of Leviticus prohibited homosexual relations, and the Hebrews were warned not to "follow the acts of the land of Egypt or the acts of the land eex Canaan" Lev. The Sifra clarifies what these ambiguous "acts" were, and that they included same-sex marriage: "A man would marry a man and a unino a woman, a man would marry a woman and her daughter, and a woman would be married to two men.

What is arguably union first historical mention of the performance of same-sex marriages occurred during the early Roman Empire according to controversial [] historian John Boswell. Child emperor Elagabalus referred to his chariot driver, a blond slave from Caria named Hieroclesas his husband. The first Roman emperor to have married a man was Nerowho is reported to have married two other males on different occasions.

The first was with one of Nero's own freedmenPythagoraswith whom Nero took the role of the bride. The marriage was celebrated in both Sx and Rome in extravagant public ceremonies.

It should be noted, however, that conubium existed only between a civis Romanus and a civis Romana that is, between a male Roman citizen and a female Roman citizenso that a marriage between two Roman males or with a slave would have no legal standing in Roman law apart, presumably, from the arbitrary will of the emperor in the two aforementioned cases.

The idea implicit in the word is that a man took a woman in marriage, in matrimonium ducereso that he might have children by her. Historians variously trace the beginning of the modern movement in support of same-sex marriage to anywhere from around the s to the s.

InDenmark became the first country to recognize a legal relationship for same-sex couples, establishing registered partnershipswhich gave those in same-sex union "most rights of married heterosexuals, but not the right to adopt or obtain joint custody of a child". In Mexicosame-sex marriage is performed in several states and recognized in all thirty-one states. In Augustthe Supreme Court of Jnion of Costa Rica ruled that the right of same-sex couples to marry is guaranteed by the American Convention on Human Rightsin line with a January ruling sex the Inter-American Court of Human Rightsand that the Legislative Assembly of Costa Se has a grace period of eighteen months to amend the marriage law to align with the Convention after which same-sex marriage will automatically become established by law in Costa Rica.

Note: Countries and territories in which same-sex marriage laws have been repealed are not included on the table.

British Judge Sir Asme Bratzathen head of the European Court of Human Rights, delivered a speech in that signaled the court was ready to declare same-sex marriage a "human right", as soon as enough countries fell into line.

Article 12 of the European Convention on Human Rights states that: "Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right", [] not limiting marriage to those in a heterosexual relationship. However, the ECHR stated in Schalk and Kopf v Austria that this provision was intended to limit marriage to heterosexual relationships, as it used the term "men and women" instead of "everyone".

On 12 Marchthe European Parliament passed a non-binding resolution encouraging EU institutions and member states to "[reflect] on the recognition of same-sex marriage or same-sex civil union as a political, social and human and civil rights issue". On 5 Junethe European Court of Justice ruled, in a case from Romaniathat, under the specific conditions of the couple in question, married same-sex couples have the same residency rights as other married couples unkon an EU country, even if that country does not permit or recognize same-sex marriage.

After a motion lodged by Costa Rica, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued a landmark advisory ruling in favour of same-sex marriage on 9 Januarywhich is expected to facilitate legalisation in several countries in the Americas. The Court said that governments "must recognise and guarantee all the rights that are derived from a family bond between people of the same sex". They also said that it was inadmissible and discriminatory for a separate legal provision sex be established such as civil unions instead of same-sex marriage.

The Court demanded that governments "guarantee access to all existing forms of domestic legal systems, including the right to marriage, in order to ensure the protection of all the rights of families formed by same-sex couples without discrimination". Recognising the difficulty in passing such laws in countries where there is strong opposition to same-sex marriage, it recommended that governments pass temporary decrees until new legislation is brought in. The Court issued its ruling union response to a motion brought by Costa Rica in The Costa Rican Government asked the Court to give its opinion on whether it had an obligation to extend property rights to same-sex couples, and the Court ruled that it did.

The Costa Rican Government also wanted to know whether it should allow transgender people to change their name sam gender on their identity sex. Again, the Court ruled that it must. Eame 29 Junetwo family judges in Cuenca, Ecuador unikn that the Civil Registry must issue same-sex marriage licenses on request, stating that the decision of the IACHR trumped the Ecuadorian Constitution 's definition of marriage.

The Registry appealed, but the Constitutional Court ruled in favor of same-sex marriage on 12 June On 8 Augustthe Costa Rican Supreme Court declared Costa Rica's same-sex marriage ban unconstitutional, and gave the Legislative Assembly 18 months to reform unioj law accordingly, otherwise the ban would be abolished automatically.

Besides Ecuador and Costa Rica, lawsuits regarding same-sex marriage have been filed in Honduras, [] Panama, [] Paraguay to recognize marriages performed abroad[] and Peru, [] all of which are under the jurisdiction of the IACHR.

In Panama the previous government of Juan Carlos Varela announced that it would implement the unoin and communicated this to the other branches of government, but under his successor's sxe the Panamanian Congress approved a constitutional reform banning same-sex marriage. The reform, alongside others, caused massive protests that caused President Laurentino Cortizo to criticize the lawmakers and a committee was created to analyze the more polemic reforms.

Same-sex marriage is also due to become legally performed and recognized in Costa Rica [f]. Additionally, Israel recognizes the marriages of same-sex couples validly entered into in other countries.

Legal cases have been filed same a number of other countries. On 15 Julythe Argentine Senate approved a bill extending marriage rights to same-sex couples. Australia became the second nation in Oceania to legalise same-sex marriage when the Australian Parliament passed a bill on 7 December Since same Januarysame-sex couples have been allowed to enter registered partnerships Eingetragene Partnerschaft.

On 20 Novemberthe Greens introduced a bill in the Austrian Parliament that would legalise same-sex marriage. In Decemberthe Vienna Administrative Court dismissed a case challenging the same-sex marriage ban. The plaintiffs appealed to the Constitutional Court.

Most Christian denominations opposed it, while the United Church of Christ , the United Church of Canada , and the Religious Society of Friends Quakers took a more favourable stand or allowed individual churches autonomy in the matter.

The Unitarian Universalist churches and the gay-oriented Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches fully accepted same-sex marriage. Hinduism , without a sole leader or hierarchy , allowed some Hindus to accept the practice while others were virulently opposed.

The three major schools of Buddhism —Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana—stressed the attainment of enlightenment as a basic theme; most Buddhist literature therefore viewed all marriage as a choice between the two individuals involved. Sexuality is but one of many areas where religious and civic authority interact; definitions of the purpose of marriage is another. In one view, the purpose of marriage is to ensure successful procreation and child rearing.

A third perspective holds that marriage is an instrument of societal domination and so is not desirable. A fourth is that relationships between consenting adults should not be regulated by the government.

Although most religions subscribe to just one of these beliefs, it is not uncommon for two or more viewpoints to coexist within a given society. Proponents of the first view believe that the primary goal of marriage is to provide a relatively uniform social institution through which to produce and raise children.

In their view, because male and female are both necessary for procreation, the privileges of marriage should be available only to opposite-sex couples. In other words, partnerships involving sexual intimacy should have at least a notional potential for procreation. From this perspective, the movement to legally recognize same-sex marriage is a misguided attempt to deny the social, moral , and biological distinctions that foster the continued existence of society and so should be discouraged.

Among groups who feel strongly that same-sex marriage is problematic, there is also a tendency for the legal relationships of spouses, parents, and children to converge. Typically, these societies provide for the automatic inheritance of property between spouses, and between parents and children, and allow these close kin to co-own property without joint ownership contracts.

In addition, such societies often allow close kin a variety of automatic privileges such as sponsoring immigration visas or making medical decisions for one another; for those with whom one shares no close kin relationship, these privileges typically require legal interventions.

Such legal circumventions are usually more difficult for, and in some cases even prohibited to, same-sex couples. In contrast to the procreative model of marriage, advocates of the legalization of same-sex marriage generally believed that committed partnerships involving sexual intimacy are valuable because they draw people together to a singular degree and in singular ways. In this view, such relationships are intrinsically worthy while also quite distinct from though not incompatible with activities associated with the bearing or raising of children.

Sexual partnerships are one of a number of factors that bond adults together into stable household units. These households, in turn, form the foundation of a productive society—a society in which, albeit incidentally, children, elders, and others who may be relatively powerless are likely to be protected.

From this perspective, the devaluation of same-sex intimacy is immoral because it constitutes arbitrary and irrational discrimination , thereby damaging the community. Most same-sex marriage advocates further held that international human rights legislation provided a universal franchise to equal treatment under the law. Thus, prohibiting a specific group from the full rights of marriage was illegally discriminatory. For advocates of the community-benefit perspective, all the legal perquisites associated with heterosexual marriage should be available to any committed couple.

For these reasons, they maintained that consensual intimacy between adults should not be regulated and that marriage should be disestablished as a cultural institution. A fourth view, libertarianism , had different premises from queer theory but somewhat similar ramifications; it proposed that government powers should be strictly limited, generally to the tasks of maintaining civil order, infrastructure , and defense.

For libertarians, marriage legislation of any sort—either the legalization or the prohibition of same-sex marriage—fell outside of the role of government and was unacceptable. Same-sex marriage. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. May 6, - Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Maine , as Gov. John Baldacci signs a bill less than an hour after the state legislature approves it. Voters in Maine repeal the state's law allowing same-sex marriage in November May 6, - New Hampshire lawmakers pass a same-sex marriage bill.

Marriages will become legal on January 1, May 26, - The California Supreme Court upholds the passage of Proposition 8, banning same-sex marriage. However, 18, such marriages performed before Proposition 8 will remain valid. June 17, - President Barack Obama signs a memorandum granting some benefits to same-sex partners of federal employees. December 15, - The city council of Washington, DC votes to legalize same-sex marriage, Marriages become legal on March 9, July 9, - Judge Joseph Tauro of Massachusetts rules that the Defense of Marriage Act is unconstitutional because it interferes with a state's right to define marriage.

February 23, - The Obama Administration instructs the Justice Department to stop defending the constitutionality of the Defense of Marriage Act in court. June 24, - The New York Senate votes to legalize same-sex marriage. Governor Andrew Cuomo signs the bill just before midnight.

September 30, - The US Department of Defense issues new guidelines allowing military chaplains to perform same-sex ceremonies. February 1, - The Washington Senate passes a bill to legalize same-sex marriage, by a vote of On February 8, , the House approves the measure by a vote of February 7, - A three-judge panel with the 9th US Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco rules that Proposition 8, the voter-approved same-sex marriage ban, violates the constitution.

February 23, - The Maryland Senate passes a bill to legalize same-sex marriage and Governor Martin O'Malley promises to sign it into law. The law goes into effect on January 1, May 8, - North Carolina voters pass a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage, putting a ban that already existed in state law into the state's charter. May 9, - Excerpts from an interview with ABC air in which Obama endorses same-sex marriage , the first such statement by a sitting president.

He feels that the legal decision should be up to the states to determine. A stay on same-sex marriages in California remains in place until the issue is exhausted in the courts. November 6, - Voters in Maryland, Washington and Maine pass referendums legalizing same-sex marriage. This is the first time same-sex marriage has been approved by a popular vote in the United States. Voters in Minnesota reject a ban on the issue. Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Washington the following day.

December 7, - The US Supreme Court announces it will hear two constitutional challenges to state and federal laws dealing with the recognition of gay and lesbian couples to legally wed. Oral arguments in the appeal are held in March , with a ruling expected by late June. January 25, - The Rhode Island House of Representatives passes a bill legalizing same-sex marriage.

On May 2, , Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln Chafee signs the bill legalizing the marriages after the state legislature approves the measure , and the law goes into effect in August May 7, - Delaware legalizes same-sex marriage. It goes into effect July 1, May 14, - Minnesota Governor Mark Dayton signs a bill giving same-sex couples the right to marry. The law goes into effect in August 1, June 26, - The Supreme Court rejects parts of DOMA in a decision, dismissing an appeal over same-sex marriage on jurisdictional grounds and ruling same-sex spouses legally married in a state may receive federal benefits.

It also rules that private parties do not have "standing" to defend California's voter-approved ballot measure barring gay and lesbian couples from state-sanctioned wedlock. The ruling clears the way for same-sex marriages in California to resume. August 1, - Laws in Rhode Island and Minnesota to legalize same-sex marriage go into effect at midnight.

August 29, - The US Treasury Department rules that legally married same-sex couples will be treated as married for tax purposes, even if they live in a state that does not recognize same-sex marriage. September 27, - A New Jersey state judge rules that same-sex couples must be permitted to marry in New Jersey starting October The ruling says that the parallel label "civil unions," which the state already allows, is illegally preventing same-sex couples from getting federal benefits.

On October 21, same-sex couples are legally allowed to marry. November 13, - Governor Neil Abercrombie signs legislation making Hawaii the 15th state to legalize same-sex marriage.

The law takes effect on December 2, November 20, - Illinois becomes the 16th state to legalize same-sex marriage when Governor Pat Quinn signs the Religious Freedom and Marriage Fairness Act into law. The law will go into effect on June 1, Gray's battle with cancer prompted the couple to seek relief from a federal court to immediately receive a license before the law goes into effect in June.

Gray dies March 18, On February 21, , an Illinois federal judge rules that other same-sex couples in Cook County can marry immediately. December 19, - The New Mexico Supreme Court unanimously rules to allow same-sex marriage statewide and orders county clerks to begin issuing marriage licenses to qualified same-sex couples.

December 20, - A federal judge in Utah declares the state ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional. December 24, - The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals denies a request from Utah officials to temporarily stay a lower court's ruling that allows same-sex marriage there. The ruling allows same-sex marriages to continue while the appeal goes forward. January 6, - The Supreme Court temporarily blocks same-sex marriage in Utah , sending the matter back to an appeals court. Days later, State officials in Utah announce that the more than 1, same-sex marriages performed in the three weeks prior will not be recognized.

January 14, - An Oklahoma federal court rules the state ban on same-sex marriage is "an arbitrary, irrational exclusion of just one class of Oklahoma citizens from a governmental benefit. February 10, - Attorney General Eric Holder issues a memo stating, "the Justice department will consider a marriage valid for purposes of the marital privilege if an individual is or was validly married in a jurisdiction authorized to sanction marriages, regardless of whether the marriage is or would have been recognized in the state where the married individuals reside or formerly resided, or where the civil or criminal action has been brought.

Heyburn II rules that Kentucky's denial of recognition for valid same-sex marriages violates the United States Constitution's guarantee of equal protection under the law. Wright Allen strikes down Virginia's ban on same-sex marriage. February 26, - US District Judge Orlando Garcia strikes down Texas' ban on same-sex marriage, ruling it has no "rational relation to a legitimate government purpose.

March 14, - A federal preliminary injunction is ordered against Tennessee's ban on recognizing same-sex marriages from other states. Michigan Attorney General Bill Schuette files an emergency request for Judge Friedman's order to be stayed and appealed. April 14, - District Judge Timothy Black orders Ohio to recognize same-sex marriages from other states. May 9, - An Arkansas state judge declares the state's voter-approved same-sex marriage ban unconstitutional. An appeal is filed.

The following day, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals responds to the appeal and issues a temporary stay against same-sex marriage in Idaho. In October , the Supreme Court lifts the stay. May 16, - The Arkansas Supreme Court issues an emergency stay as its judges consider an appeal to the state judge's ruling on same-sex marriage.

May 19, - A federal judge strikes down Oregon's ban on same-sex marriage. May 20, - District Judge John E. Jones strikes down Pennsylvania's ban on same-sex marriage.

June 6, - A Wisconsin federal judge strikes down the state's same-sex marriage ban. Within days, Wisconsin Attorney General J. Van Hollen files a petition with the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals to halt same-sex marriages in the state. June 13, - District Judge Barbara Crabb temporarily blocks same-sex marriages in Wisconsin, pending appeals.

June 25, - An appeals court strikes down Utah's ban on same-sex marriage. July 9, - A state judge in Colorado strikes down Colorado's ban on same-sex marriage.

However, the judge prevents couples from immediately marrying by staying his decision. July 11, - A federal appeals court rules that about 1, same-sex marriages performed earlier this year must be recognized by Utah.

July 18, - The Supreme Court grants Utah's request for a delay in recognizing same-sex marriages performed in late and early July 18, - The 10th Circuit Court of Appeals upholds a judge's ruling from January that the same-sex marriage ban in Oklahoma is unconstitutional. The panel stays the ruling, pending appeal from the state. July 23, - A federal judge rules that Colorado's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional.

The judge stays implementation of the ruling pending appeals. July 28, - A federal appeals court strikes down Virginia's ban on same-sex marriage. The 4th Circuit opinion also will affect marriage laws in other states within its jurisdiction, including West Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina.

Separate orders will have to be issued for affected states in the region outside Virginia. August 20, - The Supreme Court grants a request to delay enforcement of an appeals court ruling that overturned Virginia's same-sex marriage ban. August 21, - District Judge Robert Hinkle rules Florida's same-sex marriage ban to be unconstitutional , but same-sex marriages cannot immediately be performed.

September 3, - Judge Martin L. Feldman upholds Louisiana's ban on same-sex marriages, breaking a streak of 21 consecutive federal court decisions overturning the bans since June October 6, - The US Supreme Court refuses to hear appeals from five states -- Indiana, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia and Wisconsin -- seeking to keep their same-sex marriage bans in place.

Therefore, same-sex marriage becomes legal in those states. October 7, - Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Colorado and Indiana. October 7, - The 9th Circuit US Court of Appeals in California concludes bans on same-sex marriage in Nevada and Idaho violate the equal protection rights of same-sex couples to legally marry. October 9, - Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Nevada and West Virginia. October 10, - Same-sex marriage becomes legal in North Carolina. October 17, - Judge John Sedwick rules that Arizona's ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional and refuses to stay his ruling.

Also, the US Supreme Court rejects Alaska's request to delay enforcement of the court's ruling on same-sex marriage. Less than an hour later, a federal judge in Wyoming did the same in that Western state. November 4, - A federal judge rules that Kansas' ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional.

He puts the ruling on hold until November 11, to give the state time to file an appeal. November 12, - A South Carolina federal judge strikes down the state's ban on same-sex marriage, delaying the effective date until November 20, allowing time for an appeal by the state's attorney general.

November 19, - A federal judge overturns Montana's same-sex marriage ban. The order is effective immediately. Couples are free to marry as the case continues through the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals. January 12, - A federal judge rules South Dakota's ban on same-sex marriage unconstitutional but stays the ruling.

January 23, - A federal court judge rules in favor of the freedom to marry in Alabama for same-sex couples but stays the ruling.