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Zoophilia is a paraphilia involving a sexual fixation on non-human animals. Bestiality is cross-species sexual activity between human and non-human animals. The terms are often used interchangeably, but some researchers make a distinction between the attraction zoophilia and the act bestiality. Although sex with animals is not outlawed in some countriesin most countries, bestiality is illegal under animal abuse laws or laws dealing with buggery with crimes against nature.
Three key terms commonly used in regards to the subject sex zoophiliabestialityand zoosexuality — are often used somewhat interchangeably. Some researchers distinguish between zoophilia as a persistent sexual interest in animals and bestiality as sexual acts with animalsbecause bestiality is often not driven by a sexual preference for animals.
Zoosadism specifically is one member of the Macdonald triad of precursors to sociopathic behavior. The term zoophilia was introduced into the field of research on sexuality humans Psychopathia Sexualis by Krafft-Ebingwho described a number of cases animal "violation of animals bestiality ",  as well as "zoophilia erotica",  which he defined as a sexual attraction to animal skin or fur. In general contemporary usage, the term zoophilia may refer to sexual activity between human and non-human animals, the desire to engage in such, or to the specific paraphilia i.
Although Krafft-Ebing also coined the term zooerasty sex the paraphilia of exclusive sexual attraction to animals,  that term has fallen out of general use.
The term zoosexual was proposed by Hani Miletski in  as a value-neutral term. Usage of zoosexual as a noun in reference to a person is synonymous with zoophile, while the adjectival form of the word — as, for instance, in the phrase "zoosexual act" — may indicate sexual activity between a human and a non-human animal. The derivative noun "zoosexuality" is sometimes used by self-identified zoophiles in both support groups and on internet-based discussion forums to designate sexual orientation manifesting as romantic or emotional involvement with, or sexual attraction to, non-human animals.
Stephanie LaFarge, an assistant professor of psychiatry at the New Jersey Medical School, and Director of Counseling at the ASPCAwrites that two groups can be distinguished: bestialists, who rape or abuse animals, and zoophiles, who form an emotional and sexual attachment to animals.
Williams and Martin Humans studied self-defined zoophiles via the internet and reported them as understanding the term zoophilia to involve concern animal the animal's welfare, pleasure, and consent, as distinct from the self-labelled zoophiles' humans of "bestialists", whom the zoophiles in their study defined as focused on their own gratification.
Williams and Weinberg also quoted a British newspaper saying that zoophilia is a term used by "apologists" for bestiality. Martin Duberman has written that it is difficult to get a random sample in sexual research, and that even when Paul GebhardKinsey's research successor, removed prison samples from the figures, he found the animal were not significantly changed. Bythe farm population in the USA had declined by 80 percent compared withreducing the opportunity to live with animals; Hunt's study suggests that these demographic changes led to a significant change in reported occurrences of bestiality.
The percentage of males who reported sexual interactions with animals in was 4. Miletski believes this is not due to a reduction in interest but merely a reduction in opportunity. Nancy Friday 's book on female sexualityMy Secret Gardencomprised around fantasies from different women; of these, 23 involve zoophilic activity.
In one study, psychiatric patients humans found to have a statistically significant higher prevalence rate 55 percent of reported bestiality, both actual sexual contacts 45 percent and sexual fantasy 30 percent than the control groups of medical in-patients 10 with and psychiatric staff 15 percent. Sexual arousal from watching animals mate is known as faunoiphilia. Sexual fantasies about zoophilic acts can occur humans people who do not have any wish to experience them in real life.
Nancy Friday notes that with as a fantasy may provide an escape from cultural expectations, restrictions, and judgements in regard to sex. Masters says that some brothel madams used to stage exhibitions of animals mating, as they found it aroused potential clientele, and that this may have encouraged the clients to engage in bestiality. Several studies have found that women show stronger vaginal responses to films depicting bonobo copulation than to non-sexual stimuli.
Zoophilia has been partly discussed by several sciences: Psychology the humans of the human mindsexology a relatively new discipline primarily studying human sexualityethology the study of animal behaviorand anthrozoology the study of human-animal interactions and bonds. The World Health Organization takes the same position, listing a sexual preference for animals in its ICD as "other disorder of sexual preference".
Zoophilia may also be covered to some degree by other fields such as ethics, philosophy, law, animal rights and animal welfare. It may also sex touched upon by sociology with looks both at zoosadism in examining patterns and issues related to sexual abuse and at non-sexual zoophilia in examining the role of animals as emotional support and companionship in human lives, and may fall within the scope of psychiatry if it becomes necessary to consider its significance in a clinical context.
Additionally, zoophiles in categories 2, 3, and 8 romantic zoophiles, zoophilic fantasizers, and regular zoophiles are the most common, while zoophiles found in categories 6 and 7 sadistic bestials and opportunistic zoophiles are the least common. Zoophilia may reflect childhood experimentation, sexual abuse or lack of other with of sexual expression. Exclusive desire for animals rather than humans is considered a rare paraphilia, and sufferers often have other paraphilias  with which they present.
Zoophiles will not usually seek help for their condition, and so do not come sex the attention of psychiatrists for zoophilia itself. The first detailed studies of zoophilia date from prior to Peer reviewed research into zoophilia in its own right started around However, a number of the most oft-quoted studies, such as Miletski, were not published in peer-reviewed journals.
There have been several significant modern books, from Masters to Beetz ;  their research arrived humans the following conclusions:. More recently, research has engaged animal further directions — the speculation that at least some animals seem to enjoy a with relationship assuming sadism is not present, and can form an affectionate bond.
Miletski notes that information on sex with animals on the internet is often very emphatic as to what the zoophile believes gives pleasure and how to identify what is perceived as with beforehand. For instance, Jonathan Balcombe says animals do things for pleasure. But he himself says pet owners will be unimpressed by this statement, as this is not news to them. She says only a few recent studies have taken data from volunteers in the community.
Medical research suggests that some zoophiles only become aroused by a specific species such as horsessome zoophiles become aroused by multiple species which may or may not include humansand some zoophiles are not attracted to humans at all. Researchers who observed humans monkey trying to mate with humans deer in interspecies sex said that it may provide clues into animal humans have interspecies sex. Instances of this behavior have been found in the Bible. Raymond Christinger interprets that as a show of power of a tribal chief,  and so we do not know if this practice was then more acceptable, and if animal scene depicted was usual or unusual or whether it was symbolic or imaginary.
Potters seem to have spent time depicting the humans, but this may be because they found the idea amusing. Pindar, Herodotus, and Plutarch claimed the Egyptians engaged in ritual congress with goats. Bestiality was accepted in some North American and Middle Eastern indigenous cultures. Several cultures built temples KhajurahoIndia or other structures SagaholmbarrowSweden with zoophilic carvings on the exterior, however at Khajuraho these depictions are not on the interior, perhaps depicting that these are things that belong to the profane world rather than the spiritual world, and thus are to be left outside.
In the Church-oriented culture of the Middle Ages zoophilic activity was met with execution, typically burning, and death to the animals involved either the same way or by hanging, as "both a violation of Biblical edicts and a degradation of man as a spiritual being rather than one that is purely animal and carnal. As with all accusations and confessions extracted under torture in the witch trials in Early Modern Europetheir validity cannot be ascertained. Passages in Leviticus 18 Lev "And you shall not lie with any beast and defile yourself with it, neither shall any woman give herself to a beast to lie with it: it is a perversion.
If a woman approaches any beast and lies with it, you shall kill the woman and the beast; they shall be put to death, their blood is upon them. However, the teachings of the New Testament have been interpreted by some as not expressly forbidding bestiality. In Part II of his Summa Theologicamedieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas ranked various "unnatural vices" sex acts resulting in "venereal pleasure" rather than procreation by degrees of sinfulness, concluding that "the most grievous is the sin of bestiality.
There are sex few references in Hindu scriptures to religious figures engaging in symbolic sexual activity with animals such as explicit depictions sex people having sex with animals included amongst the thousands of sculptures of "Life events" with the exterior of the temple complex at Khajuraho. The depictions are largely symbolic depictions of the sexualization of some animals and are not meant to be taken literally.
In many jurisdictions, all forms of zoophilic sex are animal others outlaw only the mistreatment of animals, without specific mention of sexual activity. In the United Kingdom, Section 63 of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act also known as the Extreme Pornography Act outlaws images of a person with or appearing to perform an act of animal or oral sex with an animal whether dead or alive.
Nor is it a question of the sexual arousal of the defendant",  "it could be argued that a person might possess such an image for the purposes of satire, political commentary or simple grossness," according to The Independent. Many new laws humans sex with animals have been made recently, such as in New Hampshire Ohio[ citation needed ] Germany Sweden Denmark Thailand Costa Rica Bolivia and Guatemala.
Laws on zoophilia are sometimes triggered by specific incidents. In the past, some bestiality laws may have been made in the belief sex sex with an animal could result in monstrous offspring, as well as offending the community. Current anti-cruelty laws focus more specifically on animal welfare while anti-bestiality laws are aimed only at offenses to community "standards".
The agency believed current animal cruelty legislation was not sufficient in protecting animals from abuse animal needed updating, but concluded that on balance it was not appropriate to call for a ban. Under Section of the Crimes Actindividuals can serve a sentence of seven years duration for animal sexual abuse and the offence is considered 'complete' in the event of 'penetration'.
Some countries once had laws against single males living with female animals, such as Alpacas. As ofbestiality is illegal in 45 U. Most state bestiality laws were enacted between and After an incident on 2 Julywhen a man was pronounced dead in the emergency room of the Enumclaw community hospital after his colon ruptured due to having been sodomized with a horse, the farm garnered police attention.
The state legislature of the State of Washingtonwhich had been one of the few states in the United States without a law against bestiality, within six months passed a bill making bestiality illegal. When such laws are proposed, they are never questioned or debated.
Pornography involving sex with animals is widely illegal, even in most countries where bestiality itself is not explicitly outlawed. In the United Stateszoophilic pornography would be considered animal if it did not meet the standards of the Miller Test and therefore is not openly sold, animal, distributed or imported across state boundaries or within states which prohibit it. With U. Production and mere possession appears to be legal, however. Extreme Associates a judgement which was overturned on appeal, December Similar restrictions apply in Germany see above.
In New Zealand the possession, making or distribution of material promoting bestiality is sex. The potential use of media for pornographic movies was seen from the start of the era of silent film.
Polissons and Galipettes re-released as " The Good Sex Naughty Days " is a collection of early French silent films for brothel use, including some animal pornography, dating from around — Material featuring sex with animals is widely available on the Internet, due to its ease of animal.
Another early film to attain great infamy was " Animal Farm ", smuggled into Great Britain around without details as to makers or provenance. Into the s the Dutch took the lead, creating figures like "Wilma" and the "Dutch Sisters". Many Hungarian mainstream performers also appeared anonymously in animal pornography in their early careers. For example, Suzy Spark. In Japan, animal pornography is used to bypass censorship laws, often featuring Japanese and Swedish [ citation needed ] female models performing fellatio on animals, because oral penetration of a non-human penis is not in the scope of Japanese mosaic censor.
While primarily underground, there are a number of animal humans actresses with specialize in bestiality movies. In the UK Section 63 sex the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act criminalises possession of realistic pornographic images depicting sex with animals see extreme pornographyincluding fake images and simulated acts, as well as images depicting sex sex dead animals, where no crime has taken place in the production. The law provides for sentences of up to two years in prison; a sentence of 12 months was handed down in one case in Pornography of this sort has become the business of certain spammers such as Jeremy Jaynes and owners of some fake TGPswho use the promise of "extreme" material as a bid for users' attention.
Infections that are transmitted from animals to humans are called zoonoses. Some zoonoses may be transferred through casual contact, but others are much more readily transferred by activities that expose humans to the semenvaginal fluids, urinesalivafeces and blood of animals.
Examples of zoonoses are BrucellosisQ feverleptospirosisand toxocariasis. Therefore, sexual activity with animals is, in some instances, a high risk activity. Allergic reactions to animal semen may occur, including anaphylaxis.
Young, who discusses animal endocrines, and W. Gait, whose subject is primate sex behaviour. Kinsey spoke briefly upon sex behaviour in the human animal, Morris Herman gave a paper on aberrant sex behaviour, and Gregory Bateson gave one on sex and culture.
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People who identify as zoophiles may feel their love for animals is romantic rather than purely sexual, and say this makes them different from those committing entirely sexually motivated acts of bestiality. An online survey which recruited participants over the internet concluded that prior to the arrival of widespread computer networking , most zoophiles would not have known other zoophiles, and for the most part, zoophiles engaged in bestiality secretly, or told only trusted friends, family or partners.
The internet and its predecessors made people able to search for information on topics which were not otherwise easily accessible and to communicate with relative safety and anonymity. Because of the diary-like intimacy of blogs and the anonymity of the internet, zoophiles had the ideal opportunity to "openly" express their sexuality.
These groups rapidly drew together zoophiles, some of whom also created personal and social websites and internet forums. By around —, the wide social net had evolved. Weinberg and Williams observe that the internet can socially integrate an incredibly large number of people.
Further, while the farm boys Kinsey researched might have been part of a rural culture in which sex with animals was a part, the sex itself did not define the community.
The zoophile community is not known to be particularly large compared to other subcultures which make use of the internet, so Weinberg and Williams surmised its aims and beliefs would likely change little as it grew.
Those particularly active on the internet may not be aware of a wider subculture, as there is not much of a wider subculture [ clarification needed ] , Weinberg and Williams felt the virtual zoophile group would lead the development of the subculture. There also exist websites which aim to provide support and social assistance to zoophiles including resources to help and rescue abused or mistreated animals , but these are not usually well publicized.
Such work is often undertaken as needed by individuals and friends, within social networks, and by word of mouth. One notable early attempt at creating a zoophile support structure focused on social and psychological support was the newsgroup soc. Zoophiles tend to experience their first zoosexual feelings during adolescence, and tend to be secretive about it, hence limiting the ability for non-Internet communities to form: . It was an extension of my affection for the dog and of my discovery of sex.
He's a male. I'm a male. I wanted to make him feel good. I definitely knew I wasn't going to be talking to my parents or my friends about this. Because of its controversial nature, people have developed arguments both for  and against  zoophilia.
Arguments for and against zoosexual activity from a variety of sources, including religious, moral, ethical, psychological, medical and social. Bestiality is seen by the government of the United Kingdom as profoundly disturbed behavior as indicated by the UK Home Office review on sexual offences in Beetz argues that animals might be traumatized even by a non-violent, sexual approach from a human;  however, Beetz also says that in some cases, non-abusive bestiality can be reciprocally pleasurable for both the human and non-human animal.
An argument from human dignity is given by Wesley J. Smith, a senior fellow and Intelligent Design proponent at the Center for Science and Culture of the conservative Christian Discovery Institute : — "such behavior is profoundly degrading and utterly subversive to the crucial understanding that human beings are unique, special, and of the highest moral worth in the known universe—a concept known as ' human exceptionalism ' One of the primary critiques of bestiality is that it is harmful to animals and necessarily abusive, because animals are unable to give or withhold consent.
The Humane Society of the United States HSUS has said that as animals do not have the same capacity for thinking as humans, they are unable to give full consent. The HSUS takes the position that all sexual activity between humans and animals is abusive, whether it involves physical injury or not. Frank Ascione stated that "bestiality may be considered abusive even in cases when physical harm to an animal does not occur.
Some defenders of bestiality argue that the issue of sexual consent is irrelevant because many legal human practices such as semen collection , artificial insemination , hunting, laboratory testing , and slaughtering animals for meat do not involve the consent of the animal. Such procedures are probably more disturbing physically and psychologically than acts of zoophilia would be, yet the issue of consent on the part of the animal is never raised in the discussion of such procedures.
To confine the 'right' of any animal strictly to acts of zoophilia is thus to make a law [against zoophilia] based not on reason but on moral prejudice, and to breach the constitutional rights of zoophiles to due process and equality before the law. Miletski believes that "Animals are capable of sexual consent — and even initiation — in their own way. Most people can tell if an animal does not like how it is being petted, because it will move away.
An animal that is liking being petted pushes against the hand, and seems to enjoy it. To those defending bestiality this is seen as a way in which animals give consent, or the fact that a dog might wag its tail. Utilitarian philosopher and animal liberation author Peter Singer argues that bestiality is not unethical so long as it involves no harm or cruelty to the animal  see Harm principle.
In the article "Heavy Petting,"  Singer argues that zoosexual activity need not be abusive, and that relationships could form which were mutually enjoyed. Singer and others have argued that people's dislike of bestiality is partly caused by irrational speciesism and anthropocentrism.
Research has proven that non-human animals can and do have sex for non-reproductive purposes and for pleasure. Some zoophiles claim that they are not abusive towards animals: . Many even consider themselves to be animal welfare advocates in addition to zoophiles. Because of its controversial nature, different countries vary in the discussion of bestiality. Often sexual matters are the subject of legal or regulatory requirement.
In the UK broadcasting regulator OFCOM updated its code stating that freedom of expression is at the heart of any democratic state. Adult audiences should be informed as to what they will be viewing or hearing, and the young, who cannot make a fully informed choice for themselves, should be protected. Hence a watershed and other precautions were set up for explicit sexual material, to protect young people.
Zoophile activity and other sexual matters may be discussed, but only in an appropriate context and manner. The IPT was replaced after the Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act in , replaced with bodies designed to allow both more debate and increased consistency, and possession and supply of material that it is decided are objectionable was made a criminal offence.
Philip K. John Irving 's novel The Cider House Rules repeatedly mentions a pornographic photograph depicting oral sex on a pony. In Clerks II Randal orders a donkey show as a going away present for his best friend Dante, in which it is referred to as "interspecies erotica" by the male performer.
Pu Songling refers to zoophilia in the Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio short story " The Fornicating Dog ", which talks about sexual relations between a woman and her white dog. Masters' book Forbidden Sexual Behavior and Morality , the author listed the following "literary works dealing with human-animal sex relationships, in a major way or only slightly": .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Paraphilia involving a sexual fixation on non-human animal. For plant pollination carried by animals, see Zoophily.
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