Get Phone Numbers, Address, Reviews, Photos, Maps for top Ayurvedic Medicine Distributors For Sex near me in Narayan Seva Sansthan Road-Udaipur City. Sexual harassment is defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests Sexual Harassment Includes many things Actual or Attempted Rape or Sexual Assault CITIZEN SERVICES; Current Recruitment · Passport Seva. Online shopping for Home Improvement from a great selection of Fire Safety, Home Security Systems, Safes, Security Lighting, Cash Boxes & more at everyday.
Seva Díaz, Antonio. Sex and gender: a theological and scientific inquiry / edited by Mark F. Schwartz, Albert S. Moraczewski, James A. Monteleone. Online shopping for Home Improvement from a great selection of Fire Safety, Home Security Systems, Safes, Security Lighting, Cash Boxes & more at everyday. Sexual harassment is defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests Sexual Harassment Includes many things Actual or Attempted Rape or Sexual Assault CITIZEN SERVICES; Current Recruitment · Passport Seva.
SEVA SEX is a member of Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love them. View the profiles of people named Sex Seva. Join Facebook to connect with Sex Seva and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share and. She further notes how Seva was conceived “from another site represented as traumatic by nationalists: migration,” especially given that López Nieves has said.
In the context of heterosexual relationships, the sexual double standard SDS leads to a more negative assessment of women than men when they exhibit the same sexual behavior. This work assumes that seva Western democratic societies, the individual seva toward SDS takes different forms due to the processes of conviction regarding the social norm that exists on this matter. We performed Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Said three-factor structure does not match with the two-factor structure of the self-referred form.
Internal consistency, temporal stability and validity evidence are reported. This version of the SDSS is reliable and valid.
However, the results show seva the context of group membership, based on education and age, is differently associated with the response to SDSS-H. That is, higher scores are found for individuals with the highest education and for the youngest participants.
We discuss the usefulness of this measure to improve the prediction of individual attitude toward SDS, as well as, to sex the SDS phenomenon seva a level of macropsychological analysis.
The sexual double standard SDS consists of judging heterosexual men and women sex for the same sexual behavior. As a result, the traditional SDS favors highly sexually active heterosexual men to be evaluated more positively than women who exhibit the same behavior Zaikman and Marks, The assessment of the prevalence of SDS is relevant for understanding sexual health, which is related to the ability to freely enjoy and express sexuality Lottes, In accordance with this, SDS has been associated with several sexual related issues, such as sexual victimization Sierra et al.
Therefore, the study of SDS in this cultural context continues to be relevant. Sexual liberation has gradually contributed to the manifestation of traditional SDS to be expressed in a more subtle way in some fields. For example, premarital sex is increasingly accepted in men and women Wells and Twenge, However, the age of first sexual intercourse of men is lower than that of women Ortiz et al.
In other words, the SDS seems a pervasive phenomenon in society, but the empirical evidence is inconsistent. On the one hand, while seva using standardized questionnaires provide evidence of the double sexual standard Crawford and Popp,studies that use a sex perception task rarely show that people evaluate men and women differently based on their sexual activity Marks and Fraley, To explain the difficulty of assessing the SDS, it has been pointed out that many empirical studies on the topic have not sex certain methodological aspects e.
It is also suggested that researchers should take a more theoretical approach to understanding the SDS Zaikman and Marks, A possible cause for the inconsistency observed in the prevalence of the SDS is that results obtained with different designs are sometimes used to determine the sex of this phenomenon. In within-subject designs, participants respond to the same questions for each target targets: men and women ; thus, the direct response of the subject yields a measure of individual endorsement of the SDS Crawford and Popp, By contrast, in between-subject designs each participant assesses a single target either a man or a woman.
In this case, the direct response of each subject yields a measure of individual acceptance of certain sexual behaviors in men or in women Crawford and Popp, As a result, each type seva design is useful to determine the incidence of an attitude toward different topics.
For this reason, Sakaluk and Milhausen recommended using appropriate study designs to capture such differences. The main limitation of this diversity of items is that the response will only predict the attitude toward the topic referred to in the items i. From a theoretical approach based on Social Cognition Fiske and Taylor, ; Petty,we suggest that SDS research should involve a level of macropsychological analysis to explain personal adherence to SDS.
This proposal is based on two assumptions. On the one hand, SDS is a social or collective phenomenon that influences the individual attitude of the people. Therefore, and in agreement with other authors Wan et al.
Next, we discuss the basis of this measure, and in what way it makes it possible to obtain a macropsychological indicator of the SDS.
The Theory of Planned Behavior Sex, proposes that the intention of behavior is determined by the attitude toward that behavior and its subjective norm. Attitude refers to the personal evaluation toward a behavior e. In addition, sex norms determine the form that prejudice takes when expressing oneself. Gawronski and Bodenhausen found that implicit and explicit measures of prejudice against black people were more positively correlated with one another when subjects perceived that their subjective beliefs about black people were consistent with the perceived prejudice of society.
According to these findings, individuals respond according to how they feel as long as they perceive that their environment validates their attitude Crandall et al. The question is how to operationalize that measure. Methodologists in Social Sciences have pointed sex that analytical units obtained by aggregation of individual or micro level variables may be the easiest methodological and conceptual approach to model processes at the macro level Coleman, ; Liska, According to this approach, we could obtain a macropsychological indicator of the SDS phenomenon by adding the responses to the self-referred measure of SDS validated by Sierra et al.
However, we propose that the aggregation of responses to the hetero-referred measure will be a more valid indicator of how the SDS phenomenon works at a collective or macropsychological level Kenny, How can we verify this supposed validity of the hetero-referred measure to evaluate SDS at seva level of macropsychological analysis? We should consider the following assumptions. Note that research using standardized instruments to measure the SDS indicates that, although most young adults believe that there is SDS in society, individuals differ in their degree of endorsement Milhausen and Herold, Therefore, to verify the validity of our assumption, we will test whether the responses of the individuals to the hetero-referred measure are related to their group membership e.
Some authors consider that the SDS is a product of the patriarchal system that promotes male structural power Sidanius and Pratto, Therefore, responses to the hetero-referred measure may be related to the group membership of the individuals to the social category of men or women.
From the Theory of Social Identity Tajfel and Turner,masculinity is a form of social identity that makes up the self-concept of oneself as a member of a social group. Social identity is conceived as a causal mechanism that intervenes in situations of social change Tajfel, ; such change is observed, anticipated, desired or feared by the seva involved Tajfel, In this sense, individuals can determine or desire those sexual norms and behaviors that are most advantageous for the collective interests of the group with which they are identified van Zomeren et al.
If the hetero-referred measure represents a level of macropsychological analysis of SDS, then it should capture the bias triggered by the social motivation to obtain advantages and privileges for the own group.
From this framework, we assume that men, compared to women, will tend to underestimate the presence of traditional SDS in society. From this approach, the SDS can be understood as the consequence of resistance to equality Sidanius and Pratto, Consequently, the individuals who most defend inequality between social groups Pratto et al. Higher levels of education has been negatively associated with personal endorsement of the SDS Sierra et al. On the other hand, Spain initiated its democracy 40 years ago, and during that period the belief system and the norms on differences between both sexes have been progressively liberalized.
In this sense, the generational socialization of the person can be a determining factor in their adherence to SDS. Within the cultural context of Spanish society there may be generational groups that adopt more or less traditional sexual scripts Simon and Gagnon, This scale is intended to be a complementary measure to the self-referred version in order to understand the role of social norms of SDS on the personal support to SDS.
The specific objective of this study was to explore the following features of the hetero-referred version of the SDSS: factor structure, internal consistency reliability, test—retest reliability, and some evidence of its validity. That is, attitudes toward certain sexual behaviors in men or women, and attitudes toward the SDS in general.
For individuals with a high social dominance orientation SDOwe expect to also find that they:. We generally expect that the mean SDSS-H score will be more related to group membership based on gender, education and age Coleman, ; Liska, ; Kenny, This assumption is specified in the following hypotheses.
When we measure the sex SDS using seva SDSS-H scale, we expect younger subjects 18—34 years to obtain higher scores than older subjects 35—49, and 50 years or older Simon and Gagnon, sex Lott and Bullock, ; Sierra et al.
The sample was composed of 1, Spanish with heterosexual orientation. Inclusion criteria were: a being 18 or older and b heterosexual orientation. Also, items from the SDSS contain a greater depiction of traditional heterosexual scripts for both male and female. A convenience quota sampling method was used to obtain the same number of men and women. To depict all sex ranges with a similar number of individuals distributed across them, we recruited participants from the following cohorts, used in previous Spanish research on sexuality and on the SDS Scale see Sierra et al.
In order to perform statistical analyses, the sample was randomly divided into two subsamples: Sample 1 Seva sociodemographic information for each sample was as follows: a Sample 1: Range age 18—80, mean age Regarding some sexual-related information: their mean age at first sexual intercourse was Regarding their sexuality, their mean age at first sexual intercourse was In order to seva test—retest reliability, we incidentally selected seva sample of undergraduate students This group was compared to a sample of undergraduate students who were randomly extracted from the total sample of 1, individuals.
This group was composed of 75 women Heterosexual, Same-sex orientation, Other in that case please sexage of first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, relationship status, and sexual activity. It consists of 26 items e.
Several modifications were performed based on their initial translation and adaptation, and also based on experts and a Spanish sample. Therefore, some experts evaluated the content comprehension and equivalence of each item, and finally a pilot study with a sample of Spanish undergraduate students was conducted. The sum of all items provides a global score. Higher scores indicate greater acceptance of the traditional SDS i. Recently, among Spanish adolescents, the scale has shown associations with ambivalent sexism and sexist beliefs Ubillos et al.
This version is a self-referred measure of the sexual double standard SDSS-S : subjects respond to it indicating to what extent they personally agree or disagree with the statements included in its items.
It consists of 16 items, which are a translation into Spanish of the sixteen corresponding items of the original scale Muehlenhard and Quackenbush,answered on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0 disagree strongly to 3 agree strongly.
Its two factors —Acceptance of sexual freedom e. The score for each subscale is provided by the sum of their corresponding items. In Sample 2 of the present study, we found internal consistency values equal to 0. Its 16 items e. A total score can be obtained through the sum of the items.
Higher scores indicate higher SDO. The reliability of the original scale was 0. The participants of this study did obtain written informed consent, which appeared on the first two pages of the questionnaire along with the battery of scales they were asked to respond. The SDSS i. Participants answered the scales in an individual and private way.
That is, participants completed the questionnaires in groups of approximately 30—40 or fewer in an available classroom in the described places, and they were sitting sufficiently far apart to ensure privacy. Once they had finished, they handed all the measures in a closed envelope.
Write a customer review. Most helpful customer reviews on Amazon. Verified Purchase. As a psychologist, I appreciate advice given to individuals and couples that's presented in clear, understandable language.
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As someone trained in Somatic practices, I appreciate how Seva outlines the role of our biology and the limbic system in understanding the course of relationships from falling in love to being lovers. He carefully lays out why we react the way we do to our partners, and how to take responsibility for what is ours to own, and not take responsibility for what isn't ours. For me, this is a comforting validation of the range of emotions that come up for me and a partner - specifically removing shame around my emotional reactions.
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The he lays out, with many realistic examples, how communication changes can change the course of relationships, with much more time spent in harmony and much less time spent navigating hurt. In the final chapters, Seva goes beyond learning signs and techniques, to ways of changing my own reactivity and responses. I particularly relished the section called "Hacking Yourself", which demonstrated a path towards self understanding and healing to show how that can make a step change in relationship through self understanding.
This book will benefit anyone in relationship, and folks who do couples therapy will also find it a valuable tool. Regarding some sexual-related information: their mean age at first sexual intercourse was Regarding their sexuality, their mean age at first sexual intercourse was In order to estimate test—retest reliability, we incidentally selected a sample of undergraduate students This group was compared to a sample of undergraduate students who were randomly extracted from the total sample of 1, individuals.
This group was composed of 75 women Heterosexual, Same-sex orientation, Other in that case please specify , age of first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, relationship status, and sexual activity.
It consists of 26 items e. Several modifications were performed based on their initial translation and adaptation, and also based on experts and a Spanish sample. Therefore, some experts evaluated the content comprehension and equivalence of each item, and finally a pilot study with a sample of Spanish undergraduate students was conducted.
The sum of all items provides a global score. Higher scores indicate greater acceptance of the traditional SDS i. Recently, among Spanish adolescents, the scale has shown associations with ambivalent sexism and sexist beliefs Ubillos et al. This version is a self-referred measure of the sexual double standard SDSS-S : subjects respond to it indicating to what extent they personally agree or disagree with the statements included in its items.
It consists of 16 items, which are a translation into Spanish of the sixteen corresponding items of the original scale Muehlenhard and Quackenbush, , answered on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0 disagree strongly to 3 agree strongly. Its two factors —Acceptance of sexual freedom e. The score for each subscale is provided by the sum of their corresponding items.
In Sample 2 of the present study, we found internal consistency values equal to 0. Its 16 items e. A total score can be obtained through the sum of the items. Higher scores indicate higher SDO. The reliability of the original scale was 0. The participants of this study did obtain written informed consent, which appeared on the first two pages of the questionnaire along with the battery of scales they were asked to respond.
The SDSS i. Participants answered the scales in an individual and private way. That is, participants completed the questionnaires in groups of approximately 30—40 or fewer in an available classroom in the described places, and they were sitting sufficiently far apart to ensure privacy. Once they had finished, they handed all the measures in a closed envelope. Some of the respondents, aged between 18 and 54, answered questionnaires available online.
The URL of the questionnaires was distributed through the press and social media. To calculate the test—retest reliability of the SDSS, the instrument was administered to university students in their respective classrooms at three different times by an expert researcher. In the first session, each participant was given three envelopes and three copies of the SDSS along with the informed consent form.
All documents had the same code as well as the exact date of the second and third administration at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. After answering the scales, the students put them in a sealed envelope and delivered them to the evaluator.
In order to assess construct validity, the sample was randomly divided into two subsamples. Sample 1, composed of individuals, was used to perform an exploratory factor analysis EFA. Sample 2, composed of individuals, was used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis CFA.
The additional analyses were performed on the global sample. The EFA was performed with Factor In case that an item had a cross loading, as far the difference was no higher than 0. We used the robust unweighted least squares RULS as an extraction method due to its performance with outliers and heteroscedastic errors Midi et al. The number of factors was explored with the optimal implementation of parallel analysis PA Timmerman and Lorenzo-Seva, applied to the polychoric matrix.
As we expected relationship between factors -confirmed a posteriori in the CFA- we decide to use an Oblimin rotation Osborne, Confidence intervals were obtained by using Bootstrap in samples. RMSEA values lower than 0. The Akaike Information Criterion AIC, Akaike, was also taken, which indicates absence of FI if the increase with respect to the least restrictive model is considerable.
Missing data were handle with listwise deletion. However, some items had low factor loadings and some factor loadings were distributed across several factors. For this reason, items 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 25 were eliminated and the EFA was performed again without modifying any parameters.
Again, the PA yielded three factors that explained Table 1 shows the items and their factor loading distribution across the factors with their corresponding explained variances. But we will wait to see new suggestions in the further analysis. Before attempting to confirm the factor structure obtained with the EFA, we assessed the psychometric properties of the items in order to better identify whether any item was undermining the scale.
Table 2 shows that all ordinal alphas were higher than 0. For everything, finally item 14 was not deleted. The three-factor structure obtained previously showed adequate fit indices see Table 3. However, all tridimensional models need 3 covariances between errors, as suggested by the Lagrange Multiplier test.
These three pairs of items 1—2, 16—21, and 20—23 have a similar grammatical structure e. Therefore, a similar distribution of their errors should be expected. In fact, the model with three related factors showed the best fit. However, for theoretical reasons — the need to use a global score for the scale —, we decided to explore in greater detail the three-factor model with a second-order factor, as this model also yielded acceptable fit indices.
Standardized weights can be observed in Table 4. Table 4. Standardized loading weights, errors and explained variance for the 3 factors with a second order factor and 3 covariances model. A 4-week period elapsed between the first time of data collection T1 and the second time T2 ; the third collection T3 took place 8 weeks after T1.
Overall, test—retest reliabilities were good for all three factors, with correlation values ranging from 0. Table 5. Four and eight-week test—retest reliability of the SDSS — hetero-referred version. As hypothesized, we found that the strength of the correlation between the self-referred version SDSS-S and the hetero-referred version SDSS-H was greater between similar attitude targets than between different attitude target. Altogether, H2 was supported.
Table 6. Zero-order correlations between the factors and global indices of the self-referred and the hetero-referred version of the SDSS and SDO. To do so, we considered the following age groups: 18—34 years old, 35—49 years old, and 50 years old and older.
Bonferroni post hoc comparisons showed that scores on the GI-SDS-H were significantly higher in the youngest group 18—34 years old than in the second and the third group 35—49 years old and 50 years or older ; thus, H6 was supported see Table 7. Table 7. So far, empirical evidence shows difficulties for determining the prevalence of SDS Gentry, ; Marks and Fraley, We consider a theoretical approach based on social cognition models Fiske and Taylor, , and a methodological one Coleman, ; Liska, ; Kenny, We suggest that the prediction of individual support to SDS requires to bear in mind the role of the social norm about SDS.
Therefore, we propose a hetero-referred version SDSS-H of the SDSS Muehlenhard and Quackenbush, , which aims to be a macropsychological indicator of the social norm in relation to the distribution of roles between men and women in the sexual behavior field.
The findings from the psychometric analyses show a three-factor structure that does not match the two-factor structure of the self-referred form SDSS-S, Sierra et al. Also, we found that the orientation to social dominance is associated with different factors of both scales i. However, differences were found in the response to SDSS-H when we compared social categories based on other criteria such as education or age.
In particular, higher scores are found for individuals with the highest education university degree vs. The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability internal consistency and test—retest reliability , and some evidences of validity of the SDSS-H in a sample of the heterosexual Spanish population.
For this purpose, respondents were asked to use their social environment as a reference i. The EFA showed a three factor structure. Once some items were deleted, this structure showed an adequate adjustment through CFA. Out of the 26 original items from the SDSS, eight were eliminated due to their poor psychometric properties. It is likely that some topics depicted by these items, such as virginity for marriage, are considered as outdated.
We propose that both scales should be applied together when attempting to predict some types of sexual behavior as both will have a weight on the variance of the behavior in question. As pointed out, the main objective of this study is psychometric in nature. Further research is necessary to describe the predictive role of the social norm on SDS-related sexual behaviors. Specifically, the prediction of a behavior based on attitude requires that the indicators to measure the attitude imply exactly the same target to which the behavior to be predicted refers.
In effect, the results support the H2. When, from each scale, we relate factors that imply the same attitude target, the correlations that result are higher. The reliability was good for all three factors, as well as its temporal stability at 4 and 8 weeks.
However, factor 1 Acceptance for male sexual shyness was the least stable. That is, factor 1 of SDSS-H prescribes a norm that threatens the traditional differentiation of sex roles for men and women. Consistently, recent research suggests that egalitarian norms may have the side effect of intensifying opposed-normative stances as egalitarianism threatens the desired distinctiveness Falomir-Pichastor et al.
In agreement with previous findings Pratto et al. Partially, our results support H3. We assume that in Western societies, the defense of sexual freedom, including the freedom of women, serves rather to differentiate who is modern from who is not, and logically most support sexual freedom. We have assumed that the aggregation of individual responses in the SDSS-H measure will allow obtaining an evaluation of the collective norm in the field of sexual roles of both genders Kenny, Contrary to what was expected H4 no differences are found for the responses for the hetero-referred version by gender.
There is evidence that beliefs related to the system Jost et al. As we expected H5 individuals with greater academic degree vs. Likewise, younger people 18—34 years obtained significantly higher scores on SDSS-H than older people 35—49, and 50 years old or older H6. Taken together, it is likely that respondents with this demographic profile are more sensitive to the social norm favorable to SDS Lott and Bullock, In contrast, other studies show that highly educated participants provide less support to SDS Sierra et al.
Otherwise, the progressive sexual liberalization of Spanish society during the last four decades of democracy, perhaps has promoted less traditional sexual scripts that younger generations would have internalized to a greater extent Simon and Gagnon, Some limitations need to be mentioned. First, we cannot assure whether the order in which the self-referred and hetero-referred measure are administered may bias responses.
Therefore, future research should check this. Second, research using experimental methodologies will clarify whether processes of social influence, social motivations and individual characteristics influence, alone or in mutual interaction, would account for the individual attitude of men and women toward SDS.
In this sense, previous studies show the impact of cultural aspects such as religiosity on some forms of sexism Hannover et al. Although this assumption was not straightly tested in our study we believe that some of our findings bring us closer to the idea that the level of analysis of SDSS-H is different from that of SDSS-S.
Fourth, the application of our measure across countries would be very useful to validate its usefulness for capturing societal processes. A forthcoming investigation on the invariance of the measure will allow to establish more robust conclusions. Finally, it is necessary to test the measure in a representative sample, because the sample used in this study is incidental and composed, in a high percentage, of individuals with university studies.
This research contributes to debate on the need to evaluate the SDS at different analysis levels psychological-individual and macropsychological to guarantee the prediction of sexual behaviors from the attitude someone expresses toward the SDS. Specifically, our work proposes measuring the perception of the SDS that exists in society. From a theoretical point of view, the proposal of our SDSS-H is based on the assumption that, in Western democratic societies, the form adopted by adherence to the SDS is inconsistent, since it is the result of the individual attitude that the person maintains, and of his perception of the social norm on that matter.
Previous research has been assumed that the progressive liberalism in heterosexual relationships may be the determinant of the inconsistency observed in adherence to the SDS by people from Western societies. Our approach suggests that this inconsistency may be due to a failure in the way the SDS is measured. This paper argues that a problem of evaluative inconsistency may occur when an attitude toward the SDS is measured through a questionnaire as it does not adequately predict the real behavior that men and women exhibit in sexual encounters.
Making predictions only about the behaviors that are compatible with the target of the attitude being evaluated with a standardized instrument is recommended. As the SDSS-H is proposed to be used in conjunction with the SDSS-S, it is recommended that researchers comply with the principle of compatibility between the target being evaluated by both scales to interpret the results that derive from the joint application of both scales.
Finally, this measure provides several advantages and practical implications. Seva was lucky enough to train in White Tantra for 20 years with Mahan Tantra Yogi Bhajan, when he still taught in person.
Teaching Kundalini Yoga for 15 years has also given Seva a psychic energy awareness and presence that is both penetrating and healing. Former member. Harold "Izumi" S. Lark P. Assistant organizer. Skip to content. Hosted by Cheryl G. Sedona Tantra for Awakening Meetup Group.