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Countries 61 Total Fertility Life Expectancy at Birth (years), both Probability of Dying (per ) under age 5 Country Rate, sexes, years, Male​. Sociologie du travail - Vol. 46 - N° 1 - p. - Erving G offman, L'​arrangement des sexes, La Dispute, coll. «Genre du monde», Paris, , p. Very opposite sexes. Released in Running Time: 86'. Co-produced with AT-Production (Belgium), LINK'S Productions, Canal +, Natexis Banques.

Very opposite sexes. Released in Running Time: 86'. Co-produced with AT-Production (Belgium), LINK'S Productions, Canal +, Natexis Banques. violence by women is seen as the ultimate transgression of the frontier between the sexes.” ( 84) In using 'poisons' capable of modifying the social order. Sociologie du travail - Vol. 46 - N° 1 - p. - Erving G offman, L'​arrangement des sexes, La Dispute, coll. «Genre du monde», Paris, , p.

; 15(6): Published online January 1, Effects of Feeding Patterns and Sexes on Growth Rate, Carcass Trait and Grade in Korean Native. Both sexes Under age 14 Female Male Both sexes Under age 5 Female Male In coevolutionary 'arms races' between the sexes, the outcome of Nature volume , pages – (14 February ) | Download.






Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, sexes recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. Sexes sexee meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles sedes JavaScript.

Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature 2002 Journal. The advantage gained by one sex, with any evolutionary exaggeration of arms, is expected to be matched by analogous counteradaptations in the other sex 12. This fundamental coevolutionary 2002 may thus be hidden from the evolutionist's eye 34and no natural examples are known. We have studied the effects of male and female armament clasping and anti-clasping 2002 on the sexes of antagonistic mating interactions in 15 species sexess water strider, using a combination of experimental and phylogenetic comparative methods.

Here we present, by assessing the independent effects of both species-specific level swxes arms escalation and small imbalances in the amounts of arms between the sexes sexes species, the consequences of a sexual arms race.

Evolutionary change in the balance of armament between males and females, but not in the species-specific level of escalation, has resulted in evolutionary change in the outcome of sexually antagonistic interactions such as mating rate.

Chapman, T. Sexual conflict as fuel for 2002. Nature— Rice, W. Sexually antagonistic male adaptation sexds by experimental arrest of female evolution. Dangerous liaisons. Natl Acad. USA 97— Partridge, Sexes. Sex and conflict. Science— Gavrilets, S. The evolution of female mate choice by sexual conflict. B— Civetta, A. Correlated effects of sperm competition and postmating female mortality.

Rapid evolution of reproductive barriers driven by sexual conflict. Swanson, W. Positive Sexrs selection drives the evolution of several female reproductive zexes in mammals.

USA 98 dexes, — Arnqvist, G. Comparative evidence for the evolution of genitalia by sexual selection. Press, Oxford, Parker, 2002.

Sexual conflict and speciation. Sexual conflict promotes sexes in insects. Arms races in evolution—an ESS to the opponent-independent cost game. Arms races, conflict costs and evolutionary dynamics.

Harvey, P. Garland, T. Procedures for the analysis sexew comparative data using phylogenetically independent contrasts. Rowe, L. Sexual conflict and the evolutionary ecology of mating patterns: water striders as a model system.

Trends Ecol. Press, Cambridge, Correlated evolution of male and female morphologies in water striders. Evolution in the press. Sexual selection in water strider: the function, nature of selection and heritability of a male grasping apparatus.

Oikos 56— Sexual conflict and arms races between the sexes: a morphological adaptation for control of mating in a female insect. Losos, 2002. Uncertainty in the reconstruction of ancestral character states and limitations on the use of phylogenetic sexse methods. Gittleman, J. Adaptation—statistics 200 a null model for estimating phylogenetic effects. The costs of mating and mate choice in water striders.

Watson, P. Sexual conflict and the energetic costs of mating and mate choice in water striders. Felsenstein, J. The 2002 Inference Package [online]. Damgaard, J. Rohlf, F. Use of two-block partial least-squares to study covariation sexxes shape. Sexually antagonistic coevolution in a mating system: combining comparative and experimental approaches to address evolutionary process.

Download references. We thank N. Andersen and J. Damgaard for phylogenetic information; J. Felsenstein and F. Rohlf for developing software; and T.

Day, Sexed. Friberg, D. Schluter and T. Tregenza for comments. Reprints and Permissions. Antagonistic coevolution between the sexes in a group of insects. Nature— doi Download sexes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Ecology Letters Biological Reviews Theoretical Population Biology By submitting a comment you 2002 to abide by our Terms and 2002 Guidelines.

If you find something abusive or that does not 2002 with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Advanced search. Skip to main content.

You are viewing this page in draft mode. Subscribe Search My Account Login. Access through your institution. Buy or subscribe. Change 20002. Rent sexes Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube. Figure 1: Coevolution of arms in males and females. References 2002 Chapman, Sexes. Google Sexes 11 Parker, G. Google Scholar 14 Parker, G. Article Google Scholar 16 Harvey, P. Google Scholar 17 Garland, T.

De Paulo, a professor of psychology at the University of Virginia who studies single people in society, said the popular theory is that married people are uncomfortable around singles because the unattached pose a sexual threat. De Paulo thinks something else is going on too. De Paulo bases that theory in part on lab work.

As part of a study she performed on the way society perceives singles, she had subjects read fictional profiles of successful people with one variation -- some were married, some were not. The subjects, whether single or married, she said, had a hard time believing that single people could possibly be content.

De Paulo said. De Paulo said that with high divorce rates and people getting married later in life, those entering marriage want affirmation from their peers.

So when does a married guy's interest in the sex life of his friends become unhealthy? Pepper Schwartz, a professor of sociology at the University of Washington, said the answer is when there's ''emotionally unfinished business. If that was a big theme, you'd say there's something about this person that hasn't turned the corner. On the other hand, Dr. Schwartz said, '' 'Me and my wife had great sex last night' doesn't go as far as 'Wow, I met this woman in this bar,' in terms of suspense and drama.

Tannenbaum said that a latent longing for that drama may set men apart from women in the way they view their single friends. Kyrillos thinks that sense of loss may come from a rosy view of the single life. His friends ''tend to forget that you're not always going to get somewhere with these girls,'' Mr. To hear Mr. Kyrillos's pals tell it, though, they haven't forgotten what the sting of rejection feels like; they simply prefer to watch someone else experience it.

Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance and nitrogen excretion of dairy heifers March;30 3. All rights reserved. E-mail this Article Article. Choi, B. Ahn, K. Kook, S. Sun, K. Myung, S. Moon, J. Sitemap Contact Us. In all cases the misassigned individuals were assigned to the wrong breed with a low probability.

Neighbor-joining tree of individual genotypes based on 18 autosomal microsatellites. Individuals from the same breed are enclosed in a bracket if they cluster in the same area of the tree or are marked with the same color if they are located in different parts of the tree.

In contrast, breeds were not well separated for mtDNA haplotypes. Multiple mtDNA types were observed for most breeds Table 1. For example, in five collies we observed three different sequences belonging to three different clades Table 1. At the same time, breeds sharing a certain mtDNA haplotype were not necessarily phenotypically similar to each other.

For instance, haplotype D3 was found in breeds as different as the boxer, the West Highland white terrier, the cairn terrier, the poodle, and the greyhound. On the other hand, between two and six mtDNA haplotypes were observed within the wolf populations. The mtDNA haplotypes observed in wolves were different from those in dogs. A lack of structure between breeds was also exhibited by the paternally inherited Y chromosome markers. While for 12 of the 20 breeds for which five males had been studied only one Y chromosome haplotype was observed Table 1 , some haplotypes were widely distributed across very different breeds.

For example, h39 was found in breeds as diverse as the Bernese mountain dog, collie, dalmatian, greyhound, poodle, Shetland sheepdog, and West Highland white terrier. The relationship between haplotypes is represented on a network, where haplotypes are separated by mutational steps assuming that the studied microsatellites evolve in a stepwise manner; Figure 2. This network shows many alternative links between haplotypes, an indication that haplotypes can be related in multiple ways and that homoplasy may have led to the origination of the same haplotype on different occasions.

Nevertheless, the network shows that a single breed could contain several haplotypes differing from each other by several mutational steps. For example, haplotypes h72 and h88, present in Shetland sheepdogs, differ at three loci and by up to eight mutational steps Figure 2.

Regarding individual breeds, 16 had a higher number of mtDNA than Y chromosome haplotypes, whereas only 1 showed the opposite trend. Haplotype network of Y chromosome haplotypes. Each branch represents one mutational step. Hypothetical haplotypes are indicated with dots.

Since the mutational mechanisms and the modes of inheritance are different between the mtDNA and Y chromosome markers, the relevance of the difference between the numbers of haplotypes for each kind of marker in each breed cannot be directly evaluated.

Therefore, we have for comparative purposes typed male gray wolves from different populations in Europe and North America Table 1 for the same markers. The differences in the patterns of diversity between dog breeds and wolf populations can be informative of the differences in the breeding strategies.

In these gray wolf populations, contrary to the situation in dogs, the number of Y chromosome haplotypes 6. The overall number of mtDNA haplotypes observed in the dogs is slightly larger than the total number of Y chromosome types Table 1. However, the direct comparison with the diversity within the wolf populations does not seem appropriate because over such a long timescale since the time of domestication homoplasy is likely to have seriously confounded the results see Figure 2.

We studied patterns of variation in a sample of dogs representing a total of 97 breeds to characterize the diversity observed within and among the 10 groups of dogs recognized by the FCI. Comparison of the Y chromosome haplotypes found in each group showed that while some haplotypes were very common and widely distributed across groups i.

There were large differences in diversity among the groups. The highest number of haplotypes 13 and the highest haplotype diversity 0. On the other hand, some well-sampled groups showed much lower diversity. The haplotype diversity of this group 0.

Similar to the Y chromosome data, group 5 also showed the largest mtDNA diversity, with a haplotype diversity of 0. An analysis of the molecular variance indicated that between 9. In contrast, only 3. This implies that the genetic separation among groups of dogs is three or more times larger for males than for females. When these analyses were done ignoring the divergence between haplotypes and considering only the difference in haplotype frequencies between the dog groups, the same results were obtained.

The FCI groups of dog breeds correspond to a functional classification, but may have nothing to do with a genetic classification of dog breeds.

Using a larger number of microsatellite markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs , P arker et al. We repeated the analyses of the molecular variance for these groupings, with a reduced data set, and the results were basically identical to the results obtained with the FCI groups: about three times more Y chromosome diversity Dog breeds are very well-defined entities and they breed true: the offspring of two dalmatians look like dalmatians, while the offspring of two German shepherds look like German shepherds.

This demonstrates that the phenotypic traits that characterize breeds are inherited. Consequently, breeds are expected to be genetically differentiable, and this is what the analysis of autosomal microsatellites has shown.

A panel of just 18 markers allowed us to correctly assign almost all dogs belonging to 20 breeds and dogs belonging to the same breed had very similar genotypes.

Similar results have been found previously by a number of researchers Z ajc and S ampson ; K oskinen ; D e N ise et al. This high frequency of shared haplotypes between breeds may be informative about their origin. The comparison of levels of diversity in the mtDNA and Y chromosomes of dogs and gray wolves offers a perspective on how the founders of dog breeds may have been selected.

Wild gray wolves are essentially monogamous animals living in packs where only the alpha male and the alpha female reproduce every year M ech ; P ackard About as many females as males contribute to reproduction in a single year.

Although some differences are expected in the overall contribution by the sexes due to differences in the turnover rate for alpha males and alpha females in wild packs, given that mtDNA and Y chromosomes are haploid, the effective population size of these markers is expected to be similar. Thus, differences in the diversity of Y chromosomes and mtDNA in wolf populations are likely to be the result of differences in selection, rate of mutation, and sex-biased dispersal.

Since the Y chromosome haplotypes are defined by four microsatellites, we expect a higher mutation rate for this system. Consequently, all else being equal, diversity is expected to be higher for Y chromosome markers, which is observed for wolf populations. Additionally, a possible higher dispersal rate for male than for female wolves F lagstad et al. Dog breeds were characterized by a pattern of mtDNA and Y chromosome diversity opposite to that found in natural gray wolf populations.

Within breeds, fewer Y chromosome haplotypes than mtDNA haplotypes were found. This strongly indicates that a smaller number of males than females were involved in the formation of most breeds. The breeding potential for males is much larger than that for females because a bitch will rarely raise more than one litter per year, while a single male could father a large number of litters. Consequently, a phenotypic trait present in one male can be successfully transferred to a larger number of offspring per generation than if that trait is in a female.

Therefore, strong selection on males allows a faster definition of the phenotype in a new breed. Such sex-biased selection may be commonplace among other domestic mammals. A somewhat extreme example of this is the case of the thoroughbred horse. Also, only one Y chromosome lineage has been found in a large number of horse breeds L indgren et al. The narrow definition of dog breed standards in recent times C rowley and A delman and the increasing value of purebred dogs strictly fitting the definition C unliffe have led to a strong selective pressure in dogs that promotes this sex bias.

Although the bias toward males in the origin of breeds may be common to all large domestic mammals, in the case of the dog it represents a more extreme deviation from the ancestral social behavior.

Consequently, both sexes have similar contributions to reproduction on average in gray wolves, so the sex bias observed in dog breeds is the result of a drastic change of the social system of the ancestor. The comparison of groups of breeds following the classification of the FCI or of the groups derived from the P arker et al. Despite no clear patterns of differentiation across breeds for mtDNA and Y chromosome haplotypes, groups of breeds that share a common function or morphology corresponding to the FCI groups are more likely to share Y chromosome than mtDNA haplotypes.

This would suggest that when new breeds were formed, male founders were more likely than females to derive from a similar breed from the same group. As a result, a large number of Y chromosome haplotypes were restricted to one or two of the groups Table 2.

The large diversity in group 5 identified here at both mtDNA and Y chromosome markers supports that this is a very heterogeneous group. P arker et al. Similarly, the group including companion and toy dogs group 9 is also characterized by a large genetic diversity and is represented by breeds from very diverse morphologies and origins.

Data from a large number of autosomal markers led P arker et al. This view is supported by the lack of unique mtDNA or Y haplotypes within breeds, indicating that breeds have not been isolated for a very long time.

This interpretation contrasts with the widespread view that many breeds have very old origins C rowley and A delman on the basis of year-old representations of dogs with a morphology strikingly similar to that of some modern dog breeds C lutton -B rock More than the uninterrupted selection for such dogs in isolation from others for centuries or millennia, these ancient representations may indicate selective breeding for the same phenotype at different points in time P arker et al.

Alternatively, before the establishment of modern breeding strategies, recognizable dog types may have been maintained, but they were far less isolated from each other and from mongrels than they are today. Despite this, occasionally some morphologically differentiated types of dogs may have existed.

From this diverse pool of dogs some individuals were selected as founders and became the seed of new breeds. Due to this recent sorting from an ancient dog gene pool, dogs that belong to the same mtDNA or Y chromosome lineages do not need to be morphologically or behaviorally similar.

Selection was centered on males and a bias in the contribution of the sexes may have predominated at the origin of most modern dog breeds. We thank the owners of the dogs for providing samples and the members of the Department of Evolutionary Biology at Uppsala University for helpful discussions.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Genetics v. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail: es. Received Feb 22; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Dogs Canis familiaris were domesticated from the gray wolf Canis lupus at least 14, years ago, and there is evidence of dogs with phenotypes similar to those in modern breeds years ago.

Open in a separate window. RESULTS Diversity within dog breeds: The structure of a tree of the genotypes obtained from dogs from 20 breeds Table 1 using 18 autosomal microsatellites demonstrates the overall similarity existing among the members of each breed Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 2. Diversity within groups of dog breeds: We studied patterns of variation in a sample of dogs representing a total of 97 breeds to characterize the diversity observed within and among the 10 groups of dogs recognized by the FCI.

Groups 4 and 6 are merged into a single group. Acknowledgments We thank the owners of the dogs for providing samples and the members of the Department of Evolutionary Biology at Uppsala University for helpful discussions.

References Boitani, L. Wolf conservation and recovery, pp. Mech and L. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Clement, M. Posada and K. Crandall, TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies.