Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection in which members of one biological sex choose Ronald Fisher, the English statistician and evolutionary biologist developed a number of ideas about sexual selection in his book The. Request PDF | Sexuelle Selektion: evolutionäre Grundlagen | Im Tierreich existieren neben der uns vertrauten, Ecology and evolution of sex in aphid. Article. Ich werde dabei sexuelle Selektion näher charakterisieren, die Beziehungen Bell G () The masterpiece of nature: The evolution and genetics of sexuality.
Ich werde dabei sexuelle Selektion näher charakterisieren, die Beziehungen Bell G () The masterpiece of nature: The evolution and genetics of sexuality. Amrhein, V.. () Sexuelle Selektion und die Evolution von Kopulationen außerhalb des Paarbundes = sexual selection and the evolution of extra-pair. Request PDF | Sexuelle Selektion: evolutionäre Grundlagen | Im Tierreich existieren neben der uns vertrauten, Ecology and evolution of sex in aphid. Article.
On Jan 1, , Peter Kappeler and others published Sexuelle Selektion: evolutionäre Grundlagen. The genetical evolution of social behaviours. Article. medienjobs.info https://www.medienjobs.info Request PDF | Sexuelle Selektion: evolutionäre Grundlagen | Im Tierreich existieren neben der uns vertrauten, Ecology and evolution of sex in aphid. Article.
Verhaltensbiologie pp Cite as. Im Tierreich existieren neben der uns vertrauten, getrenntgeschlechtlichen sexuellen Fortpflanzung eine Evolution anderer Fortpflanzungssysteme. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to sexuelle access. Agrawal AF Selektion selection and the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Bateman AJ Intrasexual selection selektion Drosophila.
Sexuelle CW Mode of fertilization and parental care in selektion. Bell G The masterpiece of nature: The evolution and genetics of sexuality.
Croom-Helm, London Google Scholar. Berglund A, Rosenqvist G Sex role reversal in pipefish. Clutton-Brock TH The evolution selektion parental care. Evolution TH What is sexual selection? Clutton-Brock TH Sexual selection in males and females. Darwin Sexuelle On the origin of species.
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Agrawal AF Sexual selection and the maintenance of sexual reproduction. Bateman AJ Intrasexual selection in Drosophila.
Beck CW Mode of fertilization and parental care in anurans. Bell G The masterpiece of nature: The evolution and genetics of sexuality. Croom-Helm, London Google Scholar. Berglund A, Rosenqvist G Sex role reversal in pipefish. Clutton-Brock TH The evolution of parental care. Clutton-Brock TH What is sexual selection? Clutton-Brock TH Sexual selection in males and females.
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Strohbach, S. Sullivan, M. Trivers, R. In: Campbell, B. Welch, A. Westneat, D. Current Ornithology 7: — In most existing species the runaway process must have been already checked, and we should expect that the more extraordinary developments of sexual plumage are not due like most characters to a long and even course of evolutionary progress, but to sudden spurts of change.
Since Fisher's initial conceptual model of the 'runaway' process, Russell Lande  and Peter O'Donald  have provided detailed mathematical proofs that define the circumstances under which runaway sexual selection can take place.
The reproductive success of an organism is measured by the number of offspring left behind, and their quality or probable fitness. Sexual preference creates a tendency towards assortative mating or homogamy.
The general conditions of sexual discrimination appear to be 1 the acceptance of one mate precludes the effective acceptance of alternative mates, and 2 the rejection of an offer is followed by other offers, either certainly or at such high chance that the risk of non-occurrence is smaller than the chance advantage to be gained by selecting a mate.
The conditions determining which sex becomes the more limited resource in intersexual selection have been hypothesized with Bateman's principle , which states that the sex which invests the most in producing offspring becomes a limiting resource for which the other sex competes, illustrated by the greater nutritional investment of an egg in a zygote , and the limited capacity of females to reproduce; for example, in humans, a woman can only give birth every ten months, whereas a male can become a father numerous times in the same period.
Hubbell and Johnson suggested that variance in reproductive success can be influenced by the time and allocations of mating. In , Gowaty and Hubbell suggested that mating tendencies depend on the choice of strategy; in some cases, males can be more selective than females, whereas Bateman suggested that his paradigm would be "almost universal" among sexually reproducing species.
Critics proposed that females might be more subject to sexual selection than males, but not in all circumstances. Darwin's ideas on sexual selection were met with scepticism by his contemporaries and not considered of great importance until in the s biologists decided to include sexual selection as a mode of natural selection. A ten-year study, experimentally varying sexual selection on flour beetles with other factors held constant, showed that sexual selection protected even an inbred population against extinction.
Hamilton , holds that the fact that the male is able to survive until and through the age of reproduction with such a seemingly maladaptive trait is taken by the female to be a testament to his overall fitness. Such handicaps might prove he is either free of or resistant to disease , or that he possesses more speed or a greater physical strength that is used to combat the troubles brought on by the exaggerated trait.
In , Hamilton and Marlene Zuk introduced the "Bright Male" hypothesis, suggesting that male elaborations might serve as a marker of health, by exaggerating the effects of disease and deficiency. Rice have been added. In the late s, Janzen and Mary Willson, noting that male flowers are often larger than female flowers, expanded the field of sexual selection into plants. In the past few years, the field has exploded to include other areas of study, not all of which fit Darwin's definition of sexual selection.
These include cuckoldry , nuptial gifts, sperm competition , infanticide especially in primates , physical beauty , mating by subterfuge, species isolation mechanisms, male parental care, ambiparental care, mate location, polygamy, and homosexual rape in certain male animals.
Sexual conflict leads to an antagonistic co-evolution in which one sex tends to control the other, resulting in a tug of war. Besides, the sexual propaganda theory only argued that mates were opportunistically led, on the basis of various factors determining the choice such as phenotypic characteristics, apparent vigour of individuals, strength of mate signals, trophic resources, territoriality, etc. Several workers have brought attention to the fact that elaborated characters that ought to be costly in one way or another for their bearers e.
One possible explanation for the apparent lack of costs is that "compensatory traits" have evolved in concert with the sexually selected traits. Sexual selection may explain how certain characteristics such as feathers had distinct survival value at an early stage in their evolution.
Geoffrey Miller proposes that sexual selection might have contributed by creating evolutionary modules such as Archaeopteryx feathers as sexual ornaments, at first. Some have suggested that the feathers served as insulation, helping females incubate their eggs. But perhaps the feathers served as the kinds of sexual ornaments still common in most bird species, and especially in birds such as peacocks and birds-of-paradise today.
If proto-bird courtship displays combined displays of forelimb feathers with energetic jumps, then the transition from display to aerodynamic functions could have been relatively smooth. Sexual selection sometimes generates features that may help cause a species' extinction, as has been suggested  for the giant antlers of the Irish elk Megaloceros giganteus that became extinct in Pleistocene Europe.
Sex differences directly related to reproduction and serving no direct purpose in courtship are called primary sexual characteristics. Traits amenable to sexual selection, which give an organism an advantage over its rivals such as in courtship without being directly involved in reproduction , are called secondary sex characteristics. In most sexual species the males and females have different equilibrium strategies, due to a difference in relative investment in producing offspring.
As formulated in Bateman's principle, females have a greater initial investment in producing offspring pregnancy in mammals or the production of the egg in birds and reptiles , and this difference in initial investment creates differences in variance in expected reproductive success and bootstraps the sexual selection processes.
Classic examples of reversed sex-role species include the pipefish , and Wilson's phalarope. As a result of these factors, males can be expected to be more willing to mate than females, while females are expected to be the ones doing the choosing except in cases of forced copulations , which can occur for example in certain primates and ducks.
The effects of sexual selection are thus often more pronounced in males than in females. Differences in secondary sexual characteristics between males and females of a species are referred to as sexual dimorphisms. These can be as subtle as a size difference sexual size dimorphism, often abbreviated as SSD or as extreme as horns and colour patterns. Sexual dimorphisms abound in nature. Examples include the possession of antlers by only male deer , the brighter coloration of many male birds in comparison with females of the same species, or even more distinct differences in basic morphology, such as the drastically increased eye-span of the male stalk-eyed fly.
The peacock , with its elaborate and colourful tail feathers, which the peahen lacks, is often referred to as perhaps the most extraordinary example of a dimorphism. Male and female black-throated blue warblers and Guianan cock-of-the-rocks also differ radically in their plumage.
Early naturalists even believed the females to be a separate species. The largest sexual size dimorphism in vertebrates is the shell dwelling cichlid fish Neolamprologus callipterus in which males are up to 30 times the size of females. Extreme sexual size dimorphism, with females larger than males, is quite common in spiders and birds of prey. Male-male competition occurs when two males of the same species compete for the opportunity to mate with a female.
Sexually dimorphic traits, size, sex ratio,  and the social situation  may all play a role in the effects male-male competition has on the reproductive success of a male and the mate choice of a female. Larger males tend to win male-male conflicts due to their sheer strength and ability to ward off other males from taking over their females.
For instance, in the fly Dryomyza anilis , size shows the strongest correlation to the outcome of male-male conflicts over resources like territory and females. There are multiple types of male-male competition that may occur in a population at different times depending on the conditions. Competition variation occurs based on the frequency of various mating behaviours present in the population.
However, all techniques are not equally successful when in competition for reproductive success. Disruption results in a shorter copulation period and can therefore disrupt the fertilization of the eggs by the sperm, which frequently results in lower rates of fertilization and smaller clutch size.
Another factor that can influence male-male competition is the value of the resource to competitors. Male-male competition can pose many risks to a male's fitness, such as high energy expenditure, physical injury, lower sperm quality and lost paternity. A male is more likely to engage in competition for a resource that improves their reproductive success if the resource value is higher.
While male-male competition can occur in the presence or absence of a female, competition occurs more frequently in the presence of a female. A third factor that can impact the success of a male in competition is winner-loser effects. Male-male competition can both positively and negatively affect female fitness. When there is a high density of males in a population and a large number of males attempting to mate with the female, she is more likely to resist mating attempts, resulting in lower fertilization rates.
However, group mating in Japanese medaka has been shown to positively affect the fitness of females due to an increase in genetic variation, a higher likelihood of paternal care and a higher likelihood of successful fertilization. Sexual selection has been observed to occur in plants, animals and fungi. Today, biologists say that certain evolutionary traits can be explained by intraspecific competition —competition between members of the same species—distinguishing between competition before or after sexual intercourse.
Before copulation , intrasexual selection —usually between males—may take the form of male-to-male combat. Also, intersexual selection , or mate choice , occurs when females choose between male mates. Due to their sometimes greatly exaggerated nature, secondary sexual characteristics can prove to be a hindrance to an animal, thereby lowering its chances of survival. For example, the large antlers of a moose are bulky and heavy and slow the creature's flight from predators; they also can become entangled in low-hanging tree branches and shrubs, and undoubtedly have led to the demise of many individuals.
Bright colourations and showy ornamenations, such as those seen in many male birds, in addition to capturing the eyes of females, also attract the attention of predators.