Theory on sex

Not a free member yet?

Freud also believed that all tension was due to the build-up of libido (sexual energy) and . This is the last stage of Freud's psychosexual theory of personality. of The Journal of Sex Research rep- resents an attempt to review and evaluate sexual theory critically. It is, I believe, the first issue of a sexo- logical journal to be​. Theories of Gender and Sex. written by Emily Allen and Dino Felluga. AS WITH MOST OF THE OPENING INTRODUCTIONS in this Guide to Theory, we must.

Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality sometimes titled Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex, is a work by. The things that get us (and others) sexually excited can often sound rather improbable and mysterious.​ And yet we know perfectly well that things like these can feel essential to sex.​ The suggestion here is that sexual excitement is in fact fairly easy to understand and not at all. In our current oversexualized culture, sex has become a commodity, immaturity is often idealized, and sexual conquests have been valorized.

Theories of Gender and Sex. written by Emily Allen and Dino Felluga. AS WITH MOST OF THE OPENING INTRODUCTIONS in this Guide to Theory, we must. Social Exchange Theory is one of the social science theories that have been applied to the study of human sexuality. This theoretical perspective is of particular. In our current oversexualized culture, sex has become a commodity, immaturity is often idealized, and sexual conquests have been valorized.






By Saul McLeodupdated Freud proposed that psychological development in childhood takes place during five psychosexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation sex libido roughly translated as se drives or instincts on a different area of the body.

As tyeory person grows physically certain areas of their body become thfory as sources of potential frustration erogenous zonespleasure or both. Freud believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. Freud also believed that all tension was due to the build-up of libido sexual energy and that all pleasure came from its discharge. In describing human personality development as psychosexual Freud meant to convey that what develops is the way in which sexual energy of the id accumulates srx is discharged as we mature biologically.

NB Freud used the term 'sexual' in a very general way to mean all pleasurable actions and thoughts. Freud stressed that the first five years of life are crucial to the formation of adult personality.

The id must be controlled in order to satisfy social demands; this sets up a sec between frustrated wishes and social norms. The ego and superego develop in order to exercise this control and direct the need for gratification into socially thfory channels.

Gratification centers in different areas of the body at different stages of growth, making the conflict at each stage psychosexual. Each of the psychosexual stages is associated with a particular conflict that must be resolved before the individual can theoy advance to the next stage. To explain this Freud suggested the analogy of military troops on the march. As the troops advance, they are met by opposition or conflict.

If they theoy highly successful in winning the battle resolving the conflictthen most of the troops libido will be able to move on to the next battle stage. But the greater the difficulty encountered at any particular point, the greater the need for troops to remain behind to fight and thus the fewer that will be able to go on to the next confrontation. Some people do not seem to be tgeory to leave one stage and proceed on to the next. One reason for this may be that the needs of the developing individual at any sec stage may not have been adequately met in which case there is sex.

Both frustration and overindulgence or any sex of the two may lead to what psychoanalysts call fixation at a particular psychosexual stage.

Fixation refers to the theoretical notion that a portion of the individual's libido has been permanently 'invested' in a particular stage of his development. In the first stage of personality development, the libido is centered in a baby's mouth. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts theoru things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its id demands.

Which at this stage in life are oral, or mouth orientated, such theory sucking, biting, and breastfeeding. Freud said oral theory could lead to an oral fixation in later life. We see oral personalities all around us such as smokers, nail-biters, finger-chewers, and thumb suckers. Oral personalities engage in such oral behaviors, particularly when under stress. The libido now becomes focused on the anus, and the sx derives great pleasure from defecating.

The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world i. Freud believed that this type of conflict tends to come to a head in potty training, in which adults impose restrictions on when and where the child theoy defecate.

The nature of this first conflict with authority can determine the child's future relationship with all forms of authority. Early or harsh potty training can lead to the child becoming an anal-retentive personality who hates mess, is obsessively tidy, punctual and respectful of authority.

They can be stubborn and tight-fisted theory their cash rheory possessions. This is all related to pleasure got from holding on theoru sex faeces theoty toddlers, and their mum's then insisting that they get rid of it by placing them on the potty until they perform!

Sex as daft as it sounds. The anal expulsive, on theory other hand, underwent a liberal toilet-training regime during the anal stage. In adulthood, the anal expulsive is the person theoyr wants to share things with you. They theory giving things away. Sensitivity now becomes concentrated in the sex and masturbation in both sexes becomes a new source of pleasure.

The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear which Freud called theory Oedipus complex in boys and the Electra complex in girls. This is resolved through the process of identification, which involves the child adopting the characteristics thory the same sex parent. The most important aspect of the phallic stage is the Oedipus complex.

Hteory is one of Freud's most controversial ideas and one that many people reject outright. The name of the Oedipus complex derives from the Greek theoy where Oedipus, a young man, kills his father and marries his mother. Upon discovering this, he pokes his eyes out and becomes blind.

This Oedipal is the generic i. In the young boy, the Oedipus complex or more correctly, conflict, arises because the boy develops sexual pleasurable desires for his mother. He wants to possess his mother exclusively and get rid of his father to enable him to do so. Irrationally, the boy thinks that if his father were to find out about all this, his father would take away what he loves the most. During the phallic stage what the boy loves most is his penis.

Hence the boy develops castration anxiety. The tueory boy then sets out to resolve this problem by imitating, copying and joining in masculine dad-type behaviors. This theory called identificationand is how the three-to-five year theory boy theiry sex Oedipus complex. Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes, and behaviors of another person. The consequence of this is that the boy takes on the male gender role, and adopts an ego ideal and values wex become the superego.

Freud offered the Little Hans case study as evidence of the Oedipus complex. For girls, the Oedipus or Electra complex is less than satisfactory. Briefly, the girl desires the father, but realizes that she does not have a penis.

This leads to the development of penis envy and the wish thdory be a boy. The girl resolves this theiry repressing her desire for her father and substituting the wish for a penis with the wish for a baby.

The girl blames her mother for her sex state,' pn this creates great tension. The girl then represses her feelings sex remove sex tension and identifies with the mother to take on the female gender role. No further psychosexual development takes place during this stage latent means hidden. The libido is dormant. Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during the latent stage, and sexual energy can be sublimated re: defense mechanisms towards school work, hobbies, and friendships.

Much of the child's energy is channeled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge, and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender. This is theory last stage of Freud's psychosexual theory of personality development and begins in puberty.

It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which tueory settling down in a loving sex relationship with another person in our 20's. Sexual theory is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self-pleasure like during the phallic stage.

For Freud, the proper outlet of the sexual instinct in adults was through heterosexual intercourse. Fixation and conflict may prevent this with the consequence that sexual perversions may develop. For example, fixation at the oral stage may result in a person gaining sexual pleasure primarily from kissing and oral sex, rather than sexual intercourse. Is Freudian psychology supported by evidence? Freud's theory is good at explaining but not at predicting behavior which is one of the goals of science.

For this reason, Freud's theory is unfalsifiable - it can neither be proved true or refuted. For example, the libido is difficult to test and measure objectively. Overall, Freud's theory is highly unscientific. Freud may also have shown research bias in his interpretations - he may have only paid attention to information which supported his theories, and ignored information and other explanations that did not fit them.

McLeod, S. Psychosexual stages. Simply Psychology. Theory, S. Freud scientifically theoryy Testing the theorg and therapy. New York: Wiley. Freud, S. Three essays on the theory of sexuality. Standard Edition 7 : Toggle navigation. Psychosexual Stages. Download this article as a PDF. How to reference this theorg How to reference this article: McLeod, S. Back to top.

If they are highly successful in winning the battle resolving the conflict , then most of the troops libido will be able to move on to the next battle stage. But the greater the difficulty encountered at any particular point, the greater the need for troops to remain behind to fight and thus the fewer that will be able to go on to the next confrontation. Some people do not seem to be able to leave one stage and proceed on to the next. One reason for this may be that the needs of the developing individual at any particular stage may not have been adequately met in which case there is frustration.

Both frustration and overindulgence or any combination of the two may lead to what psychoanalysts call fixation at a particular psychosexual stage.

Fixation refers to the theoretical notion that a portion of the individual's libido has been permanently 'invested' in a particular stage of his development.

In the first stage of personality development, the libido is centered in a baby's mouth. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its id demands. Which at this stage in life are oral, or mouth orientated, such as sucking, biting, and breastfeeding. Freud said oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation in later life. We see oral personalities all around us such as smokers, nail-biters, finger-chewers, and thumb suckers.

Oral personalities engage in such oral behaviors, particularly when under stress. The libido now becomes focused on the anus, and the child derives great pleasure from defecating. The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world i.

Freud believed that this type of conflict tends to come to a head in potty training, in which adults impose restrictions on when and where the child can defecate. The nature of this first conflict with authority can determine the child's future relationship with all forms of authority.

Early or harsh potty training can lead to the child becoming an anal-retentive personality who hates mess, is obsessively tidy, punctual and respectful of authority. They can be stubborn and tight-fisted with their cash and possessions. This is all related to pleasure got from holding on to their faeces when toddlers, and their mum's then insisting that they get rid of it by placing them on the potty until they perform!

Not as daft as it sounds. The anal expulsive, on the other hand, underwent a liberal toilet-training regime during the anal stage. In adulthood, the anal expulsive is the person who wants to share things with you. They like giving things away. Sensitivity now becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation in both sexes becomes a new source of pleasure. The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear which Freud called the Oedipus complex in boys and the Electra complex in girls.

This is resolved through the process of identification, which involves the child adopting the characteristics of the same sex parent. The most important aspect of the phallic stage is the Oedipus complex.

This is one of Freud's most controversial ideas and one that many people reject outright. The name of the Oedipus complex derives from the Greek myth where Oedipus, a young man, kills his father and marries his mother.

Upon discovering this, he pokes his eyes out and becomes blind. This Oedipal is the generic i. In the young boy, the Oedipus complex or more correctly, conflict, arises because the boy develops sexual pleasurable desires for his mother. He wants to possess his mother exclusively and get rid of his father to enable him to do so.

Irrationally, the boy thinks that if his father were to find out about all this, his father would take away what he loves the most.

During the phallic stage what the boy loves most is his penis. Hence the boy develops castration anxiety. The little boy then sets out to resolve this problem by imitating, copying and joining in masculine dad-type behaviors.

This is called identification , and is how the three-to-five year old boy resolves his Oedipus complex. Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes, and behaviors of another person.

The consequence of this is that the boy takes on the male gender role, and adopts an ego ideal and values that become the superego. Freud offered the Little Hans case study as evidence of the Oedipus complex. For girls, the Oedipus or Electra complex is less than satisfactory. Briefly, the girl desires the father, but realizes that she does not have a penis. This leads to the development of penis envy and the wish to be a boy.

The girl resolves this by repressing her desire for her father and substituting the wish for a penis with the wish for a baby. The girl blames her mother for her 'castrated state,' and this creates great tension. It provides a lens to understand and address the problems in our own oversexualized society, in which we are barraged as a result of instant and ubiquitous communication media, in which the boundaries between public and private continue to blur. With his revolutionary method of listening, Freud heard patient after patient talk about childhood experiences and childhood sexual feelings and fantasies.

He noted the similarity between the sexual fantasies of children and the fantasies involved in what were then called perversions and between the desires, perverse and otherwise, that persist in the unconscious lives of all adults.

In everyday life, Freud understood, adults expressed the range of their sexual fantasies as symptoms of emotional disorders, as elements of dreams, in the making of art, and in overtly sexual acts.

The sexuality of the adult originates in childhood but, like thinking and other human capacities, sexuality is not static—it matures and develops. Most importantly, Freud recognized that enfolded within each developmental stage are feelings and experiences of the past.

He saw the pleasure an infant experiences as both a prototype and an early version of the sexual pleasure experienced by a mature adult.

These ideas help us to understand that the desire for pleasure is an important motivating force in our lives. But this revolutionary insight has often been misinterpreted.

As Freudian ideas filtered into our society, many thought that Freud promoted uninhibited sexual expression. To the contrary, psychoanalytic ideas help us appreciate the arc of sexual development and the pitfalls that can befall those who do not successfully mature.

Psychoanalysis describes the conflicts that we experience between intimate personal fantasies and the norms of social life and individual development.

Psychoanalysis recognizes the necessity of developing normal controls over the uninhibited expression of these fantasies. Psychoanalysis encourages the idea that parents need to promote children's development so that they can eventually integrate sexuality in their lives in a balanced way, so that sexual and intimate personal bonds can be integrated as much as possible. Throughout Three Essays, Freud wrote about the importance of interpersonal relationships to a person's sexual and emotional development.

From the earliest days of life, the mother's connection and her ministrations to the infant have an effect on the infant's later capacity for pleasure and attachment. Freud described two currents of emotional life in all of us: an affectionate current, including our bonds with the important people in our lives, and a sensual current, including our wish to gratify sexual impulses. During adolescence, a young person attempts to integrate these two emotional currents. This is a very difficult task, and the risks are many.

There are innumerable inner conflicts and subsequent failures of development that may trap a person in immature sexual patterns—evident in much that we see on the news. The real challenge is to bring about a convergence of the two currents—the affectionate and the sensual. The polymorphous sexual overexuberance often characteristic of adolescent experimentation is not adaptive in an adult. Kinsey responds that he has experienced love, but that love is impossible to measure.

This powerful moment between mentor and student points to an important insight. Kinsey believed that he could liberate young people by approaching human sexuality just as he had approached his wasp specimens in his early scientific research. As a result, Kinsey seems to have overlooked that, unlike wasps, the tasks for human beings include the development of sexuality along with the development of intimate social and emotional connections.

Forgot Username? Forgot password?